OFFICERS THE OLD 78TH REGIMENT OF FOOT

[updated Jan. 2, 2006]

The Highlands of Scotland were considered a dangerous, violent and undesirable place to be during the 18th century, and many people in Britain thought it the height of foolishness to put weapons into the hands of Highland Jacobites. James Wolfe (1727-59), while serving with the 20th Regiment in Scotland, in a letter to Captain William Rickson, dated June 9, 1751, revealed his reasons for considering the formation of new Highland regiments, which are not wholly flattering to the Highlanders. « I should imagine,” wrote Wolfe, referring to Rickson’s duties in Nova Scotia, “that two or three independent Highland companies might be of use; they are hardy, intrepid, accustomed to a rough country, and no great mischief if they fall. How can you better employ a secret enemy than by making his end conducive to the common good? If this sentiment should take wind, » he justly concludes, “what an execrable and bloody being should I be considered here in the midst of Popery and Jacobitism! » [James Wolfe: Man and Soldier by W.T. Waugh, M.A., Kingsford Professor of History, McGill University (Montreal, New York: Louis Carrier & Co., 1928) p. 101]

On January 4, 1757 Simon Fraser Esq., received orders signed by Barrington, Secretary of War, “to Raise a Highland Battalion of Foot, under your command, which is to Consist of Ten Companies of Four Serjeants, Four Corporals, Two Drummers, and One Hundred Effective Private Men in each Company, besides Commission Officers… » [SRO, GD125/22/16 (3)]. The commission to Simon Fraser Esq., Lt.Col. Commandant of the 2nd Highland Battalion of Foot, was confirmed by Royal Warrant, “the 5th Day of January 1757 in the 30th Year of our Reign. By His Majesty’s Command, Holdernesse” [PRO, SP44/189, p. 342/46].

The Highland officers received their initial commissions free but, in return, they were responsible for raising the men. The commissions could later be sold to the officer next in line for promotion. A major’s commission, for example, could fetch a thousand pounds, which was a lot of money at that time. It could also prove complicated and time consuming, because it involved the transfer of money in Scotland, which had to be arranged from the country in which the fighting took place. In addition, the subordinate officers in the chain of command had to be recommended for promotion and receive money for their own commissions, to apply against the cost of the next step up the military ladder.

The influential Duke of Argyll, writing to the Duke of Atholl in 1757 about the Highland officers, noted that Gaelic “is a rule laid down in these levies” and encouraged the recruitment of officers who had served with the Protestant Scots Brigade in Holland, in all likelihood, having regard for their professionalism, as well as their perceived political loyalty. [Chronicles of the Families of Atholl and Tullibardine, 6th January 1757, The Manuscripts of the Duke of Atholl, K.T. and of Earl of Home (London: Printed for Her Majesty’s Stationery Office by Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1891) p. 416].

On January 13, 1757 Major Clephane, who had retired from Dutch service in 1756, was directed by Lieut. Colonel Simon Fraser Commanding a Battalion of Highlanders, by virtue of a Beating Order “to raise One Hundred able bodied Men, with the Assistance of the three Officers appointed to your Company. You are to take Men of any Size who are fit for Service and of any Age from Eighteen to Forty. When you have Twenty Men or upwards raised for your Company, You are directed to send them either to Inverness Maryburgh or Dunkeld which are the places appointed for quartering the Regiment. You are to give the Subaltern Officers appointed to your Company, what Money you think proper to carry on the Service: and you are to be accountable to the Regiment for the different Sums which shall be drawn for upon Account of your Company when it is compleated. For each Man sent and approved of at head Quarters You shall receive Three Pounds Sterling with Pay from the date of his Attestation. » [SRO, GD125/2216 (6)]. After the amnesty for Jacobites, Donald MacDonald, when he realized which way the wind was blowing, in 1756 resigned his commission in the French army, and recruited his quota of men to fight for the British, against his recent employer.

One of the greatest myths surrounding the raising of the Fraser Highlanders, and one which was no doubt promoted by their colonel, was that the men recruited had volunteered to serve and came from the Lovat estate and surrounding estates. In reality, and contrary to the statement made by that romantic Highland historian, Major-General David Stewart of Garth (1772-1829) in his Sketches of the Character, Manners, and Present State of the Highlanders of Scotland, etc. (1822), research has disclosed that Lieutenant-Colonel Simon Fraser raised about 125 men from the forfeited estates of his family; not the 800 or so attributed to him. Major James Clephane raised 136 men, and wrote in April 1757 that “I have at last sent for Glasgow 124 recruits along with Colonel Fraser’s company (our two companies making the first division of the battalion)… » [A Genealogical Deduction of the Family of Rose of Kilravock (Edinburgh: T. Constable, 1898), p. 463-4.]

By April 1757, the regiment known as the 2nd Highland Battalion had 41 officers, 40 sergeants, 20 pipers and drummers, and 987 other ranks, for a total of 1,088, plus 130 supernumerays, some of whom were soldiers’ wives, who would do the washing, cooking and cleaning. A second group was sent out to the regiment in May 1758, increasing the numbers to 82 officers, 65 sergeants, 30 pipers and drummers, and 1,365 other ranks, for a total of 1,542 officers and men, including approximately 60 women [J. R. Harper, The Fraser Highlanders (1979) p. 16]. Harper also states (p. 58): On 15 September 1758, Royal Warrants were issued to raise a further company of Fraser Highlanders. This fourteenth company under the Command of Captain Alexander Fraser of Culduthel arrived in Halifax in July 1759 and was sent to Albany in error. General Amherst ordered them moved by transport to Quebec, where they eventually arrived 4 September 1759, to take part in the battle of the Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759.

According to letters found in the Balladrum papers, some 400 Fraser Highlanders were left behind, and sent to Germany to serve with the 87th or 88th Highland Volunteers (1759-63) for the duration of the Seven Years War. Lieutenant James Fraser and his 71 recruits were among those who were sent to Germany with the 87th Regt of Foot, or Highland Volunteers, formed under Major Commandant (later Lt.-Colonel Commandant) Robert Murray Keith. The main body of Fraser’s Highlanders left Glasgow for Ireland and marched some 400 miles to Cork, where they arrived in the latter part of June, 1757. On 25th December 1757, Colonel Simon Fraser wrote to Bailie James Fraser in Inverness: “After a halt of Five days at Cork to recover the fatigues of a march of 400 miles the Battalion Embark’d, consisting of 1000 fine fellows besides 170 Supernumerarys, being 40 more than the Secretary at War desired me to bring, those 40 men were intended to answer any deficiency that might arise by death or Desertion, but I did not lose a man by either from the day we left Glasgow and but 7 before… » [see separate page on the 78th]

Major-General Stewart and subsequent authors have referred to the number of pipers and drummers in the 2nd Highland Battalion (Fraser’s Highlanders). According to Lieutenant Colonel Angus Fairrie [A History of the Queen’s Own Highlanders (Seaforth and Camerons), 1983], there may well have been soldiers who were paid privately by the officers to play the pipes, but only drummers were given a separate category in the British Army during the 18th century.

It may be appropriate to note here that a natural rivalry existed between the officers of the 1st Highland Battalion [62nd Regiment, renumbered 77th Regiment of Foot, Montgomerie’s Highlanders] and the 2nd Highland Battalion [63rd Regiment, renumbered 78th Regiment of Foot, Fraser’s Highlanders] who were competing for recruits in Scotland. Furthermore, the Hon. Archibald Montgomerie (1726-1796), gazetted lieutenant-colonel commandant on January 4, 1757, succeeded as Earl of Eglinton when his unmarried older brother Alexander was murdered in 1769. Simon Fraser, of Lovat (1726-1782), gazetted lieutenant-colonel commandant on January 5, 1757, on the other hand, had lost his hereditary status as Master of Lovat when his father, the 11th Lord Lovat, was executed for treason in 1747. Even though Fraser successfully petitioned, and in 1774, by then a major-general, he was granted some of the Lovat lands in recognition of his military service to the British Crown, and the payment of some 20,000 pounds sterling, the title of Lord Lovat remained attainted, and he became known as General Simon Fraser of Lovat, or General the Hon. Simon Fraser of Lovat, the Hon., in reference to his status as a Member of Parliament for Inverness.

In fact, like Montgomerie’s Highlanders, Fraser’s Highlanders were recruited from a wide area: from Dundee around the east coast to Nairn and Elgin; down the Great Glen (Fraser), past Glengarry (MacDonell) to Lochaber (Cameron, MacDonald), over the sea to Skye (MacDonald), Tain (Ross, MacKay), Lewis (MacLeod) and Barra (MacNeil); all the way down to the west coast to Kintyre (MacAlister of Loupe) and Dunoon (Campbell).

James Clephane had previously recruited in Scotland for the Scots Brigade in Holland, and hired a professional recruiter (John Strachen) for the 100 men required of him by Colonel Fraser, but his most ardent supporter was his sister Betty, wife of Hugh Rose of Kilravock, who recruited as far away as Perthshire and Angus, with the assistance of several women around Nairnshire. It may also explain the good discipline of Fraser’s Highlanders, because the young men who were encouraged to sign up by their mothers, did not want to disgrace them. As a result, Major Clephane had more recruits than he needed, despite the competition from Montgomerie’s Highlanders and the Black Watch.

In one of her letters to her brother in London, Mrs. Rose lamented the difficulties facing Colonel Fraser: “…I think [he] has got the most difficult to act for Montgomery’s people is just planted round them, for except Mr. Baillie in Rosshire, and Mr. Rose in Murray [Moray]; I see no other help that poor Fraser has got… Colonel Fraser is in want of some proper people about him; I was this day up very early giveing him a motherly breakfast and setting him off about his business. » [SRO, FXGD 125/22/2]

soldierc.jpg (187938 bytes)

The 53rd Languedoc Regiment of French grenadiers arrived in 1755, just before the Seven Years War – and were among the troops that bore the brunt of the defence of New France. Montcalm praised the Languedocs in despatches. They held the left wing at Carillon (later Ticonderoga) and fought in great numbers at Ste-Foy. Around 1763 the Languedocs returned to France. This sketch, and the one of a Fraser Highlander shown above, is one of several given to me by Mr. Frank M. Rolph of Rolph-Clark-Stone Limited, who was a good friend of a former employer in Montreal in the late 1960s.

Commissioned Officers

The following information has been compiled from various sources and is intended to give a brief profile of the commissioned officers in the 2nd Highland Battalion (Fraser’s Highlanders), gazetted in 1757, some of whom may not appear on the list of officers when the regiment was disbanded in 1763. The list is based on Colonel J.R. Harper’s The Fighting Frasers, A Short History of the Old 78th Regiment or Fraser’s Highlanders (1966) and subsequent research of Army lists, other military records and private family papers. Several of the Frasers in Fraser’s Highlanders have been profiled in Canadian Explorer. I would like to acknowledge the cooperation of Professor Harry Duckworth, whose free exchange of mutually beneficial information has helped both of us to better understand the background of these officers. Lt-Col. Ian McCulloch, former Commanding Officer of the Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada [1993-96], has kindly shared his research to date (November 2005). The officers are listed in order of their highest ranking in the regiment, rather than alphabetically, or by the date of their original commission in the regiment.

Colonel Simon Fraser [1], formerly Master of Lovat (1726-1782 ) – eldest son of the 11th Lord Lovat – and a reluctant Jacobite, he was Colonel of the Frasers of Lovat, but arrived too late to take part in the battle of Culloden, leaving his men under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Fraser, younger of Inverallochy (1725-1746), who, while lying wounded on the battlefield, was killed on the orders of General Hawley [Muster Roll of Prince Charles Edward Stuart’s Army 1745-46 (Aberdeen University Press, 1984)]. Gazetted lieutenant-colonel commandant on January 5, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]. Ian McCulloch notes that Colonel Fraser was wounded in an ambush whilst at the head of a raiding force of some 300 Highlanders sent to St Michel parish on the southern shore in an ambush along with Captain John Macpherson on 26 July 1759. The ball passed through Fraser first, then lodged in the thigh of Captain John Macpherson who was descending a hill directly behind him. The two officers were carried back to the camp, the only casualties of the raid. Both mended slowly and both missed the actions at Montmorency (Beauport) end-month, as well as the victory on the Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759 [Malcolm Fraser’s MSS Journal]. Fraser was wounded again at the battle of Sillery near Ste-Foy on April 28, 1760 where he commanded the left wing of General Murray’s army. He was left in command of Quebec as the acting Governor in June 1760 when Murray led the healthier elements of his army upriver to effect a union with Amherst and Haviland’s converging armies on Montreal. During this time he was installed as grandmaster of the first Grand Lodge of Ancient & Accepted Freemasons in Canada. The absent officers list shows Col. Simon Fraser « gone to England 23rd Octbr. 1760 by General Amherst’s leave » – and his brother-in-law, John Macpherson, the first Major of the 78th who had been seriously wounded at Sillery also went with him. He passed command of the regiment to Major John Campbell of Ballimore. Fraser proceeded to London from Scotland in the spring of 1761 to take up his seat in the House of Commons as an elected Member of Parliament for Inverness. He became a brigadier-general in 1762 and accompanied Lord Loudoun to Portugal with a British expeditionary force sent to assist their allies against a Spanish invasion; promoted major-general in 1772. In 1774 a special Act of Parliament was passed enabling the King to grant to him his paternal lands, in recognition of his service to the Crown (24 George III, c.37). This was a decade before any other Jacobite estates were restored. However, the title of Lord Lovat, which had also been forfeited when his father was executed in 1747, was not restored. In 1775 Major-General Simon Fraser was asked to raise another regiment, and was gazetted Colonel of the 71st on October 25, 1775, consisting of two battalions totalling 2,340 officers and men [although Fraser did not accompany the 71st to North America]. Thus a second Fraser’s Highlanders served during the American Revolutionary War and acquitted itself as honourably as the first. Many junior officers of the Old 78th served in the second regiment’s senior command positions. Fraser died in London on February 8, 1782, aged 55, having reached the rank of a lieutenant-general in the British army.

Major James Clephane (c1718-1768) – Scotch Dutch [PRO, WO64-12] – son of Colonel William Clephane, younger son of George of Carslogie, Fifeshire. He had been a major in Major General Stewart’s Regiment of the Dutch Scots Brigade, was taken prisoner at Sluys in 1747 but exchanged shortly afterwards and put in command of Stewart’s Regiment at the garrison of Tournay. Through the influence of his brother-in-law, Rose of Kilravock, he received a commission as major in the 78th on January 4, 1757. Harper does not list him among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C], but says that he was present at the capture of Louisbourg; on the 78th’s return to upper New York state as part of Amherst’s reinforcement for the defeated General Abercromby, the 78th were ordered into winter quarters along the Mohawk Valley. The experienced Major Clephane was put in command of Fort Stanwix from 11 November 1758 until 9 April the following year. He contracted scurvy like many of his soldiers and was eventually “left sick at New York” when the regiment proceeded on the 1759 expedition to Quebec. In the fall of that year, Clephane, depressed by the death of his older brother John, a physician serving under Sir John Pringle in Flanders, resigned, “finding himself unfit for Service. » He « gave power to Colonel Young to sell his Majority with the consent of the Commander in Chief,” the purchaser being Captain John McPherson; Amherst agreed to this [Fraser to Amherst, Quebec October 25, 1759, PRO, WO34/78, f. 103; Amherst to Fraser, New York March 24, 1760, PRO, WO34/4, f. 135]. After protracted negotiations, Macpherson was promoted to Major on April 15, 1760. Three years later, Clephane was elected a member of the Nairn Town Council. In 1765 he was unanimously elected Provost of Nairn, an office he held for several years. He died unmarried in May, 1768.

Major John Campbell [1], Captain of Dunoon (c1725-1773) – s/o Archibald Campbell of Innellan, Captain of Dunoon & his first wife, Lillias Campbell, d/o Walter Campbell, minister of Dunoon. The Campbells of Dunoon derive descent through the Ardentining Campbells from the House of Ardkinglas. John received his education at Glasgow University and first saw service as 2nd Lieutenant in the 5th Marine Regiment (1741), and was promoted to 1st Lieutenant in 1744. In 1747 he was appointed a Captain in an Independent Company of Foot sent on the Expedition to India under Admiral Boscawen 1748-9. He transferred to the 3rd Foot (The Buffs) [PRO, WO64-12]. Gazetted a major in the 78th on January 6, 1757; on Army list for 1759 but “never joyned” the regiment. Lord Barrington wrote to Cumberland on 16 August 1757 to inform him that « Lieutenant Colonel Frazer’s Battalion has but one Major with it; Mr Campell being at Spa [a town in Belgium] in hopes to recover his Limbs, of which he has almost lost the Use. » Dunoon was apparently sufficiently recovered in 1758 to organize the raising of the 88th Highlanders (1758-59) as its major-commandant but later gazetted lieutenant-colonel commandant on January 1, 1760. The 88th Foor or « Highland Volunteers » greatly distinguished themselves in Germany; Dunoon exchanged to half-pay in 1763; Campbell was promoted to be Colonel « in the army » in 1772, commanded in Jersey and in 1773 was appointed lieutenant-governor of Chelsea Hospital for his long and meritorious service. Colonel Campbell died at his residence in Chelsea Hospital, 24 April, 1773. [G.H. Johnson, The Heraldry of the Campbells (Inveraray, 1977) No. 467]

Major John M’Pherson [1], of Cluny (1709-1775) – Scotch Dutch [PRO, WO64-12] – s/o Lachlan Macpherson of Cluny & Jean Cameron of Lochiel – John started his military career in Marjoribank’s Regiment in the Dutch-Scots Brigade and was wounded at the siege and capture of Bergen-op-Zoom by the French in 1747. On 24 June 1757, he was discharged from the Dutch service having accepted a commission as a captain in the new-raising Fraser’s on January 5, 1757. An experienced and well-liked officer, he was also Colonel Fraser’s brother-in-law. Listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C], he was one of four field officers assigned to garrison of Fort Stanwix the winter of 1758/59. During the 1759 Quebec campaign he was wounded by the same bullet that wounded Colonel Fraser on July 26, 1759, near St Michel on the southern shore opposite Quebec. He was promoted to major on April 15, 1760 after lengthy negotiations with James Clephane, and wounded yet again at the battle of Sillery, April 28, 1760. He resigned his commission in October 1760 due to ill health and pressing domestic affairs at home, and returned to Britain with his brother-in-law, Simon Fraser, settling at Badenoch to look after the education and business affairs of the clan chieftain – his nephew, « Duncan of the Kilns ». He was known thereafter as John « Tutor of Cluny ».

Major James Abercrombie (1727-1775) – a captain in the 42nd Regiment (16 Feb 1756), and former ADC to three successive Commanders-in-Chief in North America: John Campbell, Lord Loudoun; General James Abercromby; and Major-General Jeffery Amherst. Abercrombie was made a second major of the 78th on July 25, 1760, filling a vacancy created by John Campbell of Dunoon’s promotion in Europe six months earlier. When the first major, John Macpherson, decided to retire shortly afterwards (October 5, 1760) and return to Scotland, Abercrombie became the senior and acting commandant in Colonel Simon Fraser’s absence. When the regiment was disbanded in 1763, he exchanged to half pay. He returned to active duty in 1770 when he was gazetted lieutenant-colonel of 22nd Foot on March 27, 1770 and five years later led it back to North America. He died on July 23, 1775 of wounds sustained from friendly fire (according to Major General James Grant) at the battle of Breed’s Hill [Bunker Hill], June 17, 1775.

Major John Campbell [2], later of Barbreck (c1727-1794) – s/o Archibald Campbell of Auchatennie (and of Phantillans and of Ballimore) & his first wife Anne Campbell – an ensign in the 2nd Dragoons [PRO, WO64-12]. Gazetted a captain in the 78th on January 9, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; commanded the regiment at battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759 as Colonel Fraser had not recovered from wounds received at Montmorency; wounded at Sillery on April 28, 1760; promoted to major on October 5, 1760 « in room of » John Macpherson; was the second major of the 78th and commanded a company when the regiment was disbanded; exchanged to half-pay in 1763. Gazetted lieutenant-colonel on December 25, 1777 and colonel on November 17, 1780 of the Argyll Highlanders, or old 74th Foot (1777-83), raised to fight in the American Revolution. He died on September 10, 1794, having reached the rank of a major-general in the British army. [The Heraldry of the Campbells, pp. 28-9]

Captain John M’Pherson [1] – gazetted a captain January 5, 1757; promoted to major April 15, 1760 – see above

Captain John Campbell [2], of Ballimore – gazetted a captain January 9, 1757; promoted to major October 5, 1760; commanded a company in 1763 – see above

Captain Charles Baillie (c1727-1758) – s/o William Baillie of Rosehall & Elizabeth Sutherland of Clyne. A 2nd lieutenant in the 21st Foot [PRO, WO64-12], he transferred to the 78th to become one of the original company commanders. Gazetted the grenadier captain on January 10, 1757; not listed by Harper among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appedix C]; killed in the Louisbourg landings on June 8, 1758. Harper, in error, lists David Baillie (p. 57). [Journal of William Amherst].

Captain Simon Fraser Sr [2], of Inverallochy (1732-1759) – s/o Charles Fraser 7th of Inverallochy & Anne Udney of Udney – started his British military career in the new-raising 52nd Foot [PRO, WO64-12], which was shortly afterwards re-numbered the 50th Foot. He was the younger brother of Lt.-Colonel Charles Fraser (1725-1746) who had led the Frasers of Lovat at Culloden. One of the original company commanders, he was gazetted a captain on January 11, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; seriously wounded at battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759, and “died soon after” on October 15, 1759, aged 27, unmarried. Based on their seniority in the regiment, Capt. Simon Fraser, Senr [Inverallochy], and Capt. Simon Fraser, Junr [Balnain], can be identified among the list of wounded. [PRO, CO5/51].

Captain Donald (« Donell Gorm ») M’Donell, of Benbecula (c1728-1760) [Donald McDonald PRO, WO64-12] – second and natural son of Ranald MacDonell 17th Clanranald, and half-brother to the 18th Clanranald; his younger half-brother William also served in the 78th [GD201/4/811]. Donald McDonell of Benbecula (Clan Ranald’s) is listed as one of the paymasters for the Royal Scots (French) [Muster Roll of Prince Charles Edward Stuart’s Army 1745-46]. The Duke of Argyll said of him: “brother to Clanranald was sent into the French Service when a boy, & had a Company several years, which he quitted some months ago upon the late Act of Parliament & took the Oaths to the Government; for these facts, as well as for his Character, he appeals to My Lord Holderness & undertakes on this occasion to raise 100 men” [CU49/5]. Evidently, Argyll felt that he would need his best arguments to get a commission for this man. Gazetted a captain on January 12, 1757; listed by Harper among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]. Accepted as one of the original company commanders, he replaced Charles Baillie as Captain of Grenadiers at Louisbourg, and was wounded on the night of July 21, 1760 in the approach trenches [see Will Amherset’s Journal, p. 29]; killed at Sillery on April 28, 1760. Ian McCulloch notes that Donald « Goran » was not well-liked by the Highlander rank-and-file according to Grenadier Sergeant James Thompson [Harper, 101-2, Thompson’s Memoirs ] who unabashedly styled him « a surly cross dog », a characteristic which, no doubt, was reflected in the nickname given him by the soldiers – Donald « Goran » (Donald the Sinister). Thompson hints that McDonnell was intentionally wounded or « fragged » by his own men at the Siege of Louisbourg on 21 July 1758. In a separate part of his Memoirs Thompson recalls « Our Captain had a ball passed through his left wrist and nobody could tell how it came and afaith he immediately shifted his position to the other end of the ground. » At the battle of Sillery, 28 April 1760, markedly, none of Macdonell’s volunteers were drawn from the 78th Foot. Oral tradition in the Highlands of Cape Breton, where several Fraser soldiers returned to settle on the Mira River and the environs of Iona (Barra MacNeils) maintains that it was at this 1760 battle that « the de’il finally got him ». Harper did not include Thompson’s somewhat satisfied description of his nemesis’ gory end in his book The Fraser Highlanders – « a stronger body of French overpowered and completely butchered his whole party, and he himself was found cut and hack’d to pieces in a most shocking manner. There was an end of him! » This was, no doubt, retaliation for Macdonell’s ruthless winter raids against the outlying countryside of Quebec where he kept the Quebecois militiamen and French regulars constantly off balance.

Captain John M’Donell [1], of Lochgarry (1725-1790) [John McDonell PRO, WO64-12] – s/o Donald Macdonell of Lochgarry & Isabel Gordon of Glenbucket – gazetted a captain on January 13, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; wounded through both thighs at the battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759 [PRO, C5/51], and given leave by General Monckton « to go to the Continent for health ». He was wounded again at the battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760, and the absent officers list shows « Capt. Jno McDonnell gone to England 3rd Octbr. 1761 by General Amherst’s leave ». Commanded a company when regiment was disbanded; exchanged to half-pay, December 24, 1763. He returned to active duty as a captain in the 20th Foot and was made a major « by brevet » on July 23, 1772. Gazetted a major on November 23, 1775 in the new-raising 1st/71st Foot (Fraser’s Highlanders) and went with it to North America [Wallace]. He was gazetted lieutenant-colonel of the new raising MacDonald Highlanders or 76th Foot on December 15, 1777 while serving in America and was recalled to Scotland to take command. Unfortunately, he was captured in transit on the Atlantic by an American privateer, and was later released on parole for the rest of the war. His family estates of Lochgarry were restored in 1784 and he had a fine manor house built on the site of the original house. He died in London, unmarried, October 5, 1790.

Captain Thomas Fraser, 7th of Struy (1709-1758) – s/o Hugh Fraser 6th of Struy & Mary Baillie – gazetted a captain on January 16, 1757 [PRO, WO64-12]; present at the siege of Louisbourg in June 1758, an extant letter written by Col Simon Fraser attests to his physical presence « From camp near Louisbourg on 10th August 1758″. Col Fraser wrote, “I have just been reading Struy a lecture”. Struy returned to Boston with his company, but on the forced march through Massachusetts died of « a Violent Fever ». The Boston New-Letter (5 October 1758) reported « … at Springfield on Thursday last died there, after a short Illness with a fever, Capt. Thomas Fraser, of Colonel Simon Fraser’s Highland Regiment. : An elderly Gentleman, whose Death is greatly lamented… » Registers indicate that Struy’s captaincy was given to James Fraser, the quartermaster, September 27, 1758. An unidentified family member writing to Bailie James Fraser [see separate article] from New York on 2nd November, refers to « the death of my poor Struy… » [Belladrum papers & Jeffery Amherst’s Journal, entry 24 July 1758].

Captain Sir Henry Seton, 4th Bt of Abercorn and Culberg (1729-1788) – s/o Sir Henry Seton 3rd Bt & Barbara Wemyss of Bogie – gazetted a captain on July 17, 1757 – bringing the total companies in the 78th’s establishment up to thirteen. A veteran of the Dutch-Scots Brigade, he commanded one of three newly-authorized Additional Companies that joined the regiment at their Connecticut winter quarters in April 1758. Ian McCulloch notes that Captain Seton’s company went to Halifax but remained there in garrison on guard duty as they were considered not to be sufficiently trained for the Louisbourg expedition. In the spring of 1759, Sir Harry transferred [22 April 1759] out of the 78th into the 17th Foot (Monckton’s) which formed part of Amherst’s successful expedition against Ticonderoga and Crown Point, while the 78th went via Halifax and Louisbourg to join Wolfe’s expedition against Quebec. The following year, Sir Harry’s new regiment went north to Montreal via Crown Point with Havilland’s expedition to take Montreal. In 1761 his company of the 17th was one of two assigned to Lt Col James Grant’s 1761 expedition against the Cherokee. On his return, he rejoined Monckton’s staff and accompanied that general to the Caribbean. After the fall of Havana, Sir Harry exchanged to half-pay in 1763 at the end of the war. He resigned his commission, August 6, 1770, and married Margaret Hay of Drummelzier in the same year.

Captain Alexander Cameron, 4th of Dungallon (c1730-1759) – a Jacobite whose father Alexander (3rd of Dungallon) had been a major in Cameron of Lochiel’s and Standard Bearer to the Prince [Muster Roll of Prince Charles Edward Stuart’s Army 1745-46], while Alexander Jr served as an ensign. Gazetted a captain on July 21, 1757 commanding one of three newly-authorized Additional Companies that joined the regiment whilst in Connecticut winter quarters April 1758; he was chosen to command a 100-man light infantry company in Halifax for the Louisbourg expedition, drawn from the best men of the three Additional Companies left at Halifax and assigned to Major George Scott’s Provisional Light Infantry Battalion. He was one of four field officers assigned to the Garrison of Fort Stanwix, the winter of 1758/59. Dungallon died of a fever on September 3, 1759, ten days before the battle of the Plains of Abraham, and was buried at the Levis camp. An extant letter from Fassifern’s son Lt Donald Cameron to his brother Ewen, refers to Dungallon’s death. « … the very Day that I arived here which was the 3 of September Dungalon dyed. I came time Enough to see him Intered and that was all. Hew Cameron who is now Capt took care of all his things… » His body was later removed and re-interred at Quebec, and a monument to his memory was erected by John Nairne and Malcolm Fraser, brother officers who had served with him in the 78th’s light infantry company. Ian McCulloch confirms that it was the son who died at Quebec, identified as the father in The Camerons, A History of Clan Cameron, by John Stewart of Ardvorlich (Jamieson & Munro Ltd., 1974, p. 219).

Captain Thomas Ross, of Culrossie (c1730-1759) – s/o Thomas Ross 2nd of Culrossie & Isobel Ross of Easterfearn – gazetted a captain on July 23, 1757 and commanded one of the three Additional Companies that joined the regiment in April 1758 while in Connecticut; fought at the siege of Louisbourg and was one of the four company commanders stationed at Fort Stanwix during the winter of 1758/59; a Highland « gentleman volunteer » noted in his journal that on 29th July 1759 « Capt Ross an Lt Nairn of Colonel Fraser’s Regt. fought a duel this morning, very much to the discredit of the former. » Neither was charged under the Articles of War which prohibited dueling. [Journal of the Particular transactions, in Doughty, Siege of Quebec, Vol. IV]; killed after the battle of Plains of Abraham proper on September 13, 1759 [PRO, C5/51]. Ross was skirmishing down along the St Charles River after the battle and « was mortally wounded in the body, by a cannon ball from the hulks, in the mouth of the St Charles, of which he died in great torment, but with great resolution, in about two hours thereafter. » [Malcolm Fraser’s MSS].

Captain Alexander Fraser [1], of Culduthel (c1712-1778) – s/o Alexander Fraser 5th of Culduthel & Grizel Abercromby of Birkenbog – served heir to his half-brother Malcolm, a captain in the 42nd Foot who was killed while serving as a volunteer at the siege and capture of Bergen-op-Zoom by the French in 1747. Gazetted a captain on September 15, 1758; listed by Harper among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]. Harper also states (p. 58): On 15 September 1758, Royal Warrants were issued to raise a further company of Fraser Highlanders. This fourteenth Additional Company under the command of Captain Alexander Fraser of Culduthel spent over five months trying to join their regiment. According to Lt Donald Cameron, son of Fassifern and one of his subalterns, they « arrived at Virginia the twentieth of June 1759 after a long and tedious Passage and from Virginia we ware Ordered for York, and from York up the River to Albany, where we parted with Captain [Mungo] Campbe[ll]s Company [14th, 77th Foot Company] then we ware Ordered Down that same River to York again and from York to Louisbourgh, and up the River Saint Lawrence to the Sage of Quebeck. We arrived in Camp before Quebeck September the 3… », just in time to take part in the battle of the Plains of Abraham on 13 September 1759. The following spring, while commanding the grenadier company at the battle of Sillery, April 28, 1760, Culduthel was wounded in the head. He resigned his commission, October 23, 1761, and returned to Scotland to recover from his wounds. Culduthel was considered one of the finest singers, huntsmen and sportsmen of this day. He died at Beaulieside, near Inverness, on November 17, 1778.

Captain James Fraser [1] (1708-c1785) – s/o Major James Fraser of Castleleathers & Margaret Dunbar of Grangehill – gazetted lieutenant on January 4, 1757; appointed quartermaster on January 12, 1757; resigned QM June 9, 1758; made captain-lieutenant on June 9, 1758; promoted to captain on September 27, 1758 to fill the vacancy created by the death of Captain Thomas Fraser of Struy. An unidentified family friend writing to Bailie James Fraser from New York on 2nd November, refers to “the death of my poor Struy and Simon (Fraser) Tenakyke” and adds: “I have not seen Col. Fraser as yet nor any of his officers except Simon (Fraser) Balnain’s son and James Fraser son of Castleheather who got Strui’s Company” [Belladrum papers]. Sent to the continent to recover from wounds, according to return of October 24, 1759; sought permission to sell his commission, in light of 26 years service “of which there were seven campaigns of war”, [PRO WO34/78, f. 103], but it was later learned that he “has declined to go out as he thinks himself fit for service” [Amherst to Fraser, March 24, 1760, PRO WO34/4, f. 135]. On Army list for 1760, but not 1761. Ian McCulloch confirms that Fraser resigned his commission, December 13, 1759, after he discovered he was going blind. As the younger son of Major James Fraser of Castleleathers, he was a grandson of Malcolm Fraser of Culduthel.

Captain Simon Fraser Jr [3], of Balnain (1729-1777) – 10th s/o Alexander Fraser 2nd of Balnain; served with Dutch-Scots Brigade in Flanders and was wounded at the siege and capture of Bergen-op-Zoom by the French in 1747; took his discharge from Halkett’s Regiment of the Dutch-Scots Brigade to accept a commission as a lieutenant in the 78th effective January 5, 1757; made captain-lieutenant at Louisbourg on September 27, 1758 after the vacancy was created by the sudden death of Thomas Fraser of Struy; was promoted to captain on April 22, 1759 to replace Captain Craufurd Walkinshaw who returned to Scotland to recover from sickness. Fraser commanded a company of Light Infantry under Colonel William Howe at the siege of Quebec in 1759, and was the oft-noted officer in the lead boat who spoke French to the enemy sentries on the descent downriver to where the British army landed at Foulon. The absent officers list shows « Capt. Simon Frazer gone to England 17th Octbr. 1759 by General Monckton’s leave. » Once home he was reassigned to Germany and served on the staff of Ferdinand of Brunswick. Transferred to 24th Foot (Townsend’s) on March 1, 1761, he was made major « in the Army » two weeks later. He was made major of the 24th Foot on February 8, 1762, and lieutenant-colonel July 14, 1768, serving for a time in Gibraltar. In 1770 he served as ADC to Marquis Townshend, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and in 1770 was appointed Quartermaster General in Ireland. He returned to America in April 1776 while nominally still lieutenant-colonel of the 24th Foot (according to the 1777 BAL). Gazetted a colonel « in the Army » on July 22, 1777, he was mortally wounded by a sniper at the battle of Saratoga, October 7, 1777, while serving as a brigadier-general in General John Burgoyne’s army, and died the following day [see separate page on Saratoga].

J. P. MacLean profiles General Simon Fraser, of Balnain, and states that his “commissions may positively be traced as follows: “In the 78th Foot, lieutenant January 5, 1757, captain-lieutenant September 27, 1758, captain April 22, 1759…” [An Historical Account of the Settlements of Scotch Highlanders in America” (Glasgow: 1900) p. 382]. According to the Dictionary of National Biography (p. 662-63), based on John Anderson’s Account of the Family of Frisel or Fraser (Edinburgh, 1825) and Major-General Stewart’s Sketches of the Scottish Highlanders (Edinburgh, 1822), “he is described as the youngest son of Hugh Fraser of Balnain, Inverness-shire, by his wife, a daughter of Fraser of Forgie… In January 1757 he became captain-lieutenant… married Mrs. Grant… and by that lady left issue”; whereas he was actually the son of Alexander Fraser, by his second wife Jean, a daughter of Angus Mackintosh of Kyllachy, and left no issue; neither did his widow, Margaret Henrietta Beck, by any of her three husbands [Balnain family papers]. MacLean’s profile on Archibald Campbell, of Inverneil, also bears closer scrutiny [see below].

Captain Alexander M’Leod (c1724-1772) – s/o Donald Macleod of Balmeanach. The Duke of Argyll stated that he “was an Officer in the Independent Companys raised in 1745” [CU49/5]. Gazetted a lieutenant on January 11, 1757 [PRO, WO64-12]; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; fought at all the major sieges and battles; one of eight lieutenants stationed at Fort Stanwix during the winter of 1758/59; was made captain-lieutenant on April 22, 1759; promoted to captain on September 4, 1759 « in room of » Captain Alex Cameron of Dungallon who died of fever just prior to the battle of the Plains of Abraham; wounded at battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760 [Wallace]; exchanged to half-pay with the rank of captain in December 1763 and returned to Balmeanach, where he died on April 7, 1772, allegedly by a jealous husband.

Captain Hugh [ Cameron (c1730-c1790) – served with the Dutch-Scots Brigade in Holland – gazetted a lieutenant on January 12, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758; reported wounded in Wolfe’s despatch of September 2, 1759, but recovered from his wounds; made captain-lieutenant on September 4, 1759 « in room of » Alexander MacLeod. Capt. Lt. Hugh Cameron is listed among the wounded officers at the battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759 [PRO, CO5/51]; promoted to captain on September 25, 1759 « in room of » Captain Thomas Ross, killed. Was horribly burned in an accidental gunpowder explosion in a blockhouse outside the Quebec walls during the French siege of Quebec, April-May 1760; commanded a company when regiment was disbanded in 1763; exchanged to half-pay. He returned to active service as a captain in the 13th Foot, December 25, 1770 and was made a major « in the Army » on July 23, 1772. He retired on December 2, 1775.

Captain Ranald M’Donald, of Keppoch (c1732-1788) [Ronald McDonald PRO, WO64-12] – oldest legitimate son of Alexander Macdonald of Keppoch, succeeded his father following Culloden, while a minor. Styled himself « Son of Keppoch » when gazetted a lieutenant on January 14, 1757, despite his father having been dead for ten years, a clear indication that he felt his older « natural » brother, Angus Ban, in exile, was the rightful chieftain and not he. Listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; wounded “thro’ the knee” at battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759 [PRO, C5/51], was made captain-lieutenant on September 25, 1759; promoted to captain on October 17, 1759. When promoted to captain, his older step-brother, Angus Ban, formally wrote out a resignation of the chieftainship in order that Ranald could start the process to reclaim the Keppoch lands. The monthly return of November 1759 lists him as having gone “to continent for recovery”; He was back with his regiment by 1762, General Orders dated 3 June 1762 stating that « Capt Rond McDond, is appointed to command the Grenadier Company. » When the regiment was disbanded in 1763, he exchanged to half-pay in 1772, and retired in June 1775. He was convinced to come out of retirement and raise a company for the new-raising 74th Foot (Argyll Highlanders) commanded by his old 78th colleague, John Campbell of Barbreck, in which he was gazetted a major in December 1777. « Major » Macdonell retired a second time on January 20, 1779, having married Sarah Cargill in Jamaica, and died at Keppoch in 1788.

Captain Charles M’Donell, of Glengarry (c1732-1762) [Charles McDonald PRO Kew 064-12] – s/o John Macdonell 12th of Glengarry & Helen Gordon of Glenbucket. Gazetted a lieutenant on January 19, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; wounded at battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759 [PRO, CO5/51]; made captain-lieutenant on October 17, 1759, and two months later was promoted captain effective December 13, 1759, replacing Captain James Fraser who retired due to blindness. He was wounded again at the battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760 and returned to Scotland for recovery. On his return to his unit via New York he was assigned by General Amherst to command a composite company of 86 recovered men of several regiments and pardoned prisoners hastily thrown together and sent to assist in the recapture of St John’s, Newfoundland. Macdonell’s company sailed from New York, in July 1762 and joined up with troops from Halifax and Louisbourg in August under the command of Colonel William Amherst. Macdonell was seriously wounded in the leg leading a dawn attack on Flagstaff Hill (present day Signal Hill) on September 13, 1762; his wound turned gangrenous, required amputation and he died on January 21, 1763 at Quidi Vidi in Newfoundland. James Abercrombie, the senior major of the 78th, wrote to General Amherst from Berthier, February 18, 1763, expressing his sorrow that “Captain Charles McDonell died a few days after the amputation… a good and gallant officer” [PRO, WO34/94, f. 42].

Captain John Fraser [1], of Culbokie (1727-1795) – s/o William Fraser of Culbokie and Guisachan & Margaret Macdonell of Ardnabie, he was the older brother of Archibald [Fraser’s Highlanders]. Harper calls him “of Balnain” [Appendix B], but does not identify him in the biographical sketch of John Fraser at this date [Appendix D]. Gazetted a lieutenant on January 24, 1757 in Captain Simon Fraser’s company [original parchment is in the Chateau de Ramsay Museum, Montreal]; appointed quartermaster on September 27, 1758; listed as such among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; James Thompson mentions that he was an accomplished swordsman and fought in a special regimental contest at Schenactady the winter of 1758/59 losing to a Corporal Macpherson of Dungallon’s company; resigned QM April 22, 1759; promoted to captain on April 15, 1760; appointed paymaster of troops in Montreal in 1763; commanded a company when regiment was disbanded; retired on half-pay. In 1764 he was appointed a judge of the court of common pleas at Montreal; in 1775 he resigned his commission as a half-pay officer and became a member of the legislative council of Quebec, and in 1792 a member of the legislative council of Lower Canada. At the end of the American Revolution, he helped to relocate his widowed sister-in-law and her young family, and provided financial assistance and guidance to his youngest nephew, Simon Fraser, born 1776 near Bennington, Vermont, who joined the NorthWest Company of Montreal as an apprentice clerk and became the fur trader and explorer after whom the Fraser River in British Columbia is named. Judge Fraser died in Montreal on December 8, 1795.

Captain Archibald Roy Campbell (1728-1779) – youngest son of John Campbell of Fortingall and Glenlyon who died in 1746, « Archie Roy » as he was commonly known, was listed as a captain in the Atholl Brigade and fought at Culloden for the Jacobite army [Muster Roll of Prince Charles Edward Stuart 1745-46]. Gazetted a lieutenant on January 23, 1757 in Captain John MacDonell’s company [original parchment is in the Fort Ticonderoga Museum]; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; wounded at battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759 [PRO, C5/51], made captain-lieutenant on Dr 13, 1759; wounded again at battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760; promoted to captain on April 29, 1760 « in room of » Donald Macdonell killed. The following year his company was in garrison at Berthier, Quebec; commanded a company when regiment was disbanded in 1763, and exchanged to half-pay. The London Gazeteer and New Daily Advertiser, Wed. Dec. 29, 1779, reported that “Capt. Archibald Campbell, of the late 78th regiment of foot » died of old wounds reopening on December 16, 1779 « At Armady in Argyllshire, Scotland ».

There may be some confusion between the above, and the biographical sketch given for General Sir Archibald Campbell by J.P. MacLean [An Historical Account of the Settlements of Scotch Highlanders in America prior to the peace of 1783 (Glasgow: John Mackay, 1900) p. 379-80]:
Captain Archibald Campbell, of Inverneil (1739-1791) – third son of Elizabeth Fisher and James Campbell, commissary of the Western Isles. By special recommendation of Mr Pitt he received, in 1757, a captain’s commission in Fraser’s Highlanders, and served throughout the campaign in North America, and was wounded at the taking of Quebec in 1758 [sic]. On the conclusion of the war he was transferred to the 29th Regiment, and afterwards major and lieutenant-colonel in the 42nd or Royal Highlanders, with which he served in India until 1773, when he returned to Scotland, and was elected to Parliament for the Stirling burgs in 1774. In 1775 he was selected as lieutenant-colonel of the 2nd Battalion of Fraser’s Highlanders [71st Regiment of (Highland) Foot]. He was captured on board the George transport, in Boston Harbor June 17, 1776, and remained a prisoner until May 5, 1778, when he was exchanged for Colonel Ethan Allen. He was then placed in command of an expedition against the State of Georgia, which was successful. He was superseded the following year by General Augustine Prevost. Disagreeing with the policy adopted by that officer in regard to the royalist militia, Colonel Campbell returned to England, on leave… On October 12, 1787 [by then a major-general] he was appointed colonel of the 74th Highlanders, which had been raised especially for service in India. In 1789 General Campbell returned to England… He died March 31, 1791 [having reached the rank of a lieutenant-general in the British army] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. It may be appropriate to note here that the 73rd Regiment, raised in 1777 by John Mackenzie, Lord MacLeod, son and heir to the Earl of Cromarty, was renumbered the 71st in 1786.

Captain Alexander Campbell [1], of Aros (c1725-1767) – Stewart of Garth calls him “of Aross”, a Campbell castle on the northeast coast of Mull island in Argyll. He had studied to become a minister but was offered a commission as one of the two grenadier lieutenants in the 78th when Donald MacLean « brother to the Laird of Isle Muck » declined the commission in his favour. Gazetted a lieutenant on May 7, 1757; listed by Harper among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; served in the grenadier company and was wounded at the siege and capture of Louisbourg on the same night as Captain Donald « Gorm » Macdonell, 21 July 1758 [William & Jeffery Amherst’s Journals], and wounded again on the Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759 [Harper, also see Knox Vol. III, combined from official returns] [PRO, C5/51]; taken prisoner at the battle of Sillery, April 28, 1760; promoted to captain on October 5, 1760 « in room of » his kinsman John Campbell moving up to the second majority to replace the departing John Macpherson. Aros bypassed two more senior Fraser lieutenants in the process, a strong indication that he purchased the captaincy on favourable terms from his kinsman. His company was stationed at Berthier, Quebec in 1761; commanded a company when regiment was disbanded in December 1763. He exchanged to half-pay, but returned to active service almost immediately as a captain in the 62nd Foot on August 17, 1764, then garrisoning Dominica in the West Indies. He died of disease on December 9, 1767. In 1773, Malcolm Fraser of Murray Bay recovered from “Monsieur Rigauville” for “the executors of the late Capt. Alexander Campbell, 78th Regt.” the sum of £30.

Captain John Nairne (1731-1802) – enlisted at the age of 14 with the Dutch-Scots Brigade in Holland and served in the 1st Battalion of Stewart’s Regiment. Gazetted a lieutenant on July 16, 1757 and came over to North America with one of the Three Additional Companies in the spring of 1758; selected as one of the light infantry company’s subalterns and, at the Louisbourg landings, took command of one half of the company with Ensign Malcolm Fraser, while the other half company was commanded by Captain Alexander Cameron of Dungallon. After the siege, Nairn was left behind in the army hospital with fever when the regiment sailed for Boston, but was still able to catch up with it in time to march across Massachusetts and New York to Fort Stanwix for the winter [Captain John Nairne’s Orderly Book, 8 May 1762 – 31 December 1762. MG 23, G III 23, Vol. 6. Unpublished Manuscript « A Military Sketch of Colonel John Nairne, » pp. 51-52]. Wounded at the battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760; promoted to captain on April 24, 1761 after borrowing 400 pounds from his patron, General James Murray, Governor of Quebec. On April 27, 1762, Murray divided his seigneurie of La Malbaie in two portions and granted half to Nairne and the other to Nairne’s best friend, Lieutenant Malcolm Fraser. Nairne commanded a company when regiment was disbanded in 1763; retired on half-pay. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, Nairne was gazetted a captain on June 14, 1775 in the 1st Battalion, 84th Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants); promoted major « in the army » on August 29, 1777; transferred from the RHE, October 4, 1780, on promotion to major of the 53rd Regiment of Foot. Nairne was made a lieutenant colonel « in the Army » on February 19, 1783 and, at war’s end retired to his seigneury at Murray Bay; died at Quebec on July 14, 1802.

There is an interesting story behind the sale of John Macpherson’s majority and John Campbell of Ballimore’s captaincy, which ended in arbitration. Lieutenant David Baillie, who was connected to a wealthy banking family in Tain, wanted to purchase the captaincy vacated by Campbell, but his youth and short service counted against him, and Jeffery Amherst (1717-1797), the commander-in-chief in America, refused to confirm his promotion to captain. In March 1761 Lieutenant John Nairne was recommended as purchaser of the captaincy. Lieutenant Archibald Campbell of the 78th served as agent for Macpherson, and Brigadier-General James Murray (1721-1794) acted as agent for Nairne, who had served with the Scots Brigade in Holland. The decision went in favour of Nairne and the arbitrators, to prove that officers like Major Macpherson could not always sell to the highest bidder, added: “… it would be the height of injustice for Captain Nairne to be bound by a bargain made with his junior in the same regiment, to whom on that account and by reason of his youth it was of the highest consequence at any price to gain rank.” [Donald Currie, The Lairds of Glenlyon (Perth, Scotland: S. Cown and Co., 1886) p. 281]

Captain Hugh Fraser [1], of Eskadale (c1720-1801) – s/o Alexander Fraser 3rd of Eskadale & Isabel Fraser – raised on the Lovat estates, Hugh « carryed arms » as a gentleman volunteer in the ranks of General Blakeney’s 27th Foot (Enniskillens) during the Cartenega expedition of 1740 in the West Indies. He survived the catastrophic death rate caused by rampant sickness and was made ensign in 1742; fought at Culloden with his regiment in 1746 and was promoted to lieutenant on September 4, 1754. In the summer of 1757, he came to North America with the 27th Foot to participate in the expedition against Louisbourg. When it was aborted, he and his regiment were assigned to Fort Edward for the winter. He fought at the Battle of Ticonderoga in 1758 and returned the following year with his regiment for Amherst’s successful expedition against Ticonderoga and Crown Point. He is the likely author of an anonymous letter fragment relating to the aftermath of Ticonderoga in which he refers to a brother named « Wullie » who also served in the battle. This may have been William Fraser, snr, a « gentleman volunteer » of the 42nd who was commissioned ensign in the 80th Foot (Gage’s Light Infantry) on December 27, 1757; promoted lieutenant September 25, 1760, and killed in action five years later on the Niagara Portage, September 14, 1763. In 1760, Hugh marched on Montreal as part of Brigadier Haviland’s army and met up with Murray and Amherst’s armies on September 13, 1760. The following year he was at Crown Point, the senior or eldest lieutenant with his regiment which was warned off for the Caribbean campaign against Martinique and Guadeloupe. He was exchanged to the 78th on promotion to captain on October 23, 1761. He commanded a company at Quebec when the regiment was disbanded in December 1763; retired on half-pay. Wallace speculates that he was probably of the Foyers family, but this is unlikely. [Forfeited Estates Papers, Trans Scottish History Society, 1909, Millar] It is likely that this is the Captain Hugh Fraser (regiment not stated), eldest son and heir of Alexander Fraser, portioner of Eskadale, who “seems to have bought up at various dates different rights over Eskadale and Aigas”, whose death occurred at Eskadale in March 1801 [The Scots Magazine, March 1801].

Captain Hugh Montgomerie (1739-1819) – s/o Alexander Montgomerie 4th of Coilsfield & Lillias Montgomery of Skelmorlie, was initially gazetted a lieutenant on July 21, 1757 in one of the three Additional Companies of the 77th Foot, the sister battalion of Fraser’s Highlanders. Hugh fought at Fort Duquesne [Pittsburgh] in 1758, participated in the capture of Forts Ticonderoga and Crown Point in 1759, and distinguished himself as a light infantry officer during the 1760 Cherokee campaign in South Carolina. He served in one of the 77th composite companies at the recapture of St John’s, Newfoundland under Colonel William Amherst in August 1762. He appears to have been promoted captain in the 78th Foot retroactive to June 2, 1762 [Army lists] for he was still listed as a lieutenant in the 77th Foot on William Amherst’s list of officers who participated in the recapture of St John’s two months later. Hugh was in command of a company when the regiment was disbanded in 1763; went on half-pay as Captain in the 78th until 1767, when he when he returned to active service as a captain in the 2nd/1st Foot (Royal Scots), his new commission dated February 3, 1767 [NAS GD3/9/111]. He retired on January 27, 1776. During the American Revolution he returned to military service on the home front as first major to the Argyll (Western) Fencibles and was painted in that regiment’s uniform in 1780 by John Singleton Copley. Hugh was MP for Ayrshire from 1784 to 1789, and again in 1795. In 1796, at the age of 57, he succeeded his cousin Archie to become the 12th Earl of Eglinton and moved from the House of Commons to the House of Lords. He died in 1819.

Captain Alexander Wood (1738-1769) – not on Army list for 78th but commanded a company when regiment was disbanded in 1763 [W. S. Wallace, Bull. Rech. Hist. 56, p. 61-2]. Born in Ireland in 1738, the 19-year-old Alexander Wood started his military career with the 85th Foot (Crawford’s Royal Voluntiers) raised in 1757, but was commissioned captain of an independent company three years later which would indicate a very powerful and influential patron. His independent company was amalgamated the following year into the 98th Foot (Grey’s) and fought first at Belleisle off the coast of France before being sent to the Caribbean where it served during the capture of Martinique and the siege of Havana, 1762. Before it was disbanded however, Wood was transferred to a vacancy in the 78th Foot stationed at Quebec, as a captain effective January 21, 1763, based on the strong recommendations of General Robert Monckton, Commander-in-Chief of the 1762 Martinique expedition. Wood exchanged to half-pay when the regiment was disbanded, December 24, 1763, but returned to active service in December 1764 as a captain in the 62nd Foot which was stationed in the West Indies. Six months later, he exchanged to the 65th Foot before finally exchanging to half-pay of the 113th Foot on April 30, 1768. He died on October 29, 1769.

Captains-Lieutenant

John Craufurd Walkinshaw (1721-1793) – AKA John Walkinshaw-Craufurd, 19th of Craufurdland – whose father, John Craufurd, 18th of Craufurdland, married Robina Walkinshaw, daughter and heiress of John Walkinshaw of that Ilk, Laird of Bishoptoun. Upon their marriage, John’s father added the name and arms of Walkinshaw to his own. John jr started his career in the British army as an ensign, January 24, 1741/42, but almost immediately transferred to the cavalry, specifically, the 2nd Dragoons (later Royal Scots Greys) whose current Colonel was the Duke of Argyll. John jr was present with his regiment at the victory of Dettingen in 1743, and also distinguished himself at Fontenoy two years later. He resigned his King’s commission a month after the battle of Culloden, and went to London on learning of the conviction and death sentence passed on to his boyhood friend, John Boyd, Earl of Kilmarnock. He insisted on accompanying the ill-fated John Boyd to the scaffold as a last act of comradeship, to receive the Earl’s head and and take care of the body on behalf of the Boyd family. This act of charity resulted in his name being placed at the bottom of the army list. However, he came out of retirement eleven years later during the raising of the 78th Foot, to accept the post of captain-lieutenant on January 5, 1757 commanding Simon Fraser’s company. He was at Louisbourg and with the death of Captain Charles Baillie on June 8, 1758, was promoted full captain the next day, June 9, 1758, with his seniority retroactive to his first commissioning date. He contracted scurvy while garrisoning Fort Herkimer in the Mohawk Valley the winter of 58/59 and stayed behind in New York with Major Clephane when the remainder of the regiment went to Quebec with Wolfe. A monthly return of October 24, 1759 describes him as having gone « to continent for recovery of his health ». While back in Scotland he was asked to raise a new Highland battalion of six companies and, effective October 19, 1761, was made major-commandant of the 115th Foot (Royal Scotch Lowlanders) [JSAHR, Vol. 36 (1858) 3-13]. He exchanged to half-pay on March 9, 1763 and was made a lieutenant-colonel « in the Army » in 1772. He died unmarried at Edinburgh, in February 1793, aged 72.

Lieutenant Donald M’Bean, of Faillie, later of Kyllachy (1728-c1790) – [McTosh PRO, WO64-12] – son of Gillies Macbean of Dunachton – a Dutch-Scots officer gazetted a lieutenant on January 28, 1757; not listed by Harper among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; fought in all major campaigns and was wounded at Sillery on April 28, 1760; promoted to captain-lieutenant on April 29, 1760; exchanged to half-pay with rank of captain-lieutenant in December 1763. He was made full captain « in the Army » while still on half-pay. He returned to active service as a captain in the 10th Foot on August 15, 1775 and joined it in Boston that year; fought in all major engagements of the Revolution with his regiment. Donald Macbean left the army and married Anne Mackintosh, Woodend, afterwards of Kyllachy, having succeeded to that estate on the death of his uncle Aeneas Macbean, without issue.

Lieutenant James Fraser [1] (1708-c1785) – gazetted a lieutenant January 4, 1757; appointed quartermaster January 12, 1757; resigned QM June 9, 1758; made captain lieutenant June 9, 1758; promoted captain September 27, 1758; resigned December 13, 1759 – see above

Lieutenant James Fraser [2], of Belladrum (1732-1808) – s/o James Fraser 6th of Belladrum & Isobel Fraser of Fairfield – incorrectly listed as having been gazetted a lieutenant on January 4, 1757. Harper lists a John Fraser at this date [Appendix B], but calls him James Fraser “of Belladrum” in the biographical sketch [Appendix D]. He lists James Fraser of Belladrum among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C], whereas Belladrum’s own letters prove that he never came to North America, but was held back with some 400 Highlanders who sailed with the 87th Regiment of Highland Volunteers (1759-63) to serve in Germany for the duration of the Seven Years War. Promoted (in Germany) to captain-lieutenant on October 8, 1759; promoted to captain on December 20, 1760; retired on half-pay 24 May 1763. Belladrum returned to full pay on 8 Jan 1779 in the Northern Regiment of Fencible Men; exchanged 8 April 1779 to 2nd/71st Foot (Fraser’s Highlanders) and spent the rest of the war in North America; made Major « in the Army » on 29 Aug 1777; retired on 24 June 1782. In 1794 James Fraser of Belladrum was convinced by Archibald Campbell Fraser of Lovat (1736-1815) to come out of retirement to help raise the Fraser Fencibles for service in Ireland, serving as Colonel until 1797, when he was replaced by Archie’s son John Simon Frederick Fraser (1765-1803). Belladrum died on May 26, 1808, aged 76, not 1797 as stated by Alexander Mackenzie (1838-98) in his History of the Frasers of Lovat (1896).

Lieutenant Simon Fraser [3], of Balnain – gazetted a lieutenant on January 5, 1757; made captain-lieutenant on September 27, 1758; promoted to captain April 22, 1759 – see above

Lieutenant Alexander M’Leod – gazetted a lieutenant January 11, 1757; made captain-lieutenant on April 22, 1759; promoted to captain September 4, 1759; commanded a company in 1763 – see above

Lieutenant Hugh Cameron – gazetted a lieutenant January 12, 1757; made captain-lieutenant on September 4, 1759; promoted to captain September 25, 1759; commanded a company in 1763 – see above

Lieutenant Ranald M’Donald, of Keppoch – gazetted a lieutenant January 14, 1757; made captain-lieutenant on September 25, 1759; promoted to captain October 17, 1759; commanded a company in 1763 – see above

Lieutenant Archibald M’Donald – gazetted a lieutenant on January 18, 1757 [declined, Lt. John Cuthbert of Scotch Dutch 18th Jan 1757 PRO, WO64-12]

Lieutenant John Cuthbert (1729-1758) – s/o George Cuthbert of Castlehill & Mary Mackintosh – an ensign with the Dutch- Scots Brigade in Holland – gazetted a lieutenant in Captain Charles Baillie’s company on January 18, 1757 when Archibald Macdonald declined the commission; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisburg in 1758 [Appendix C], and was killed in the landing there on June 8, 1758.

Lieutenant Charles M’Donell – gazetted a lieutenant January 19, 1757; made captain-lieutenant on October 17, 1759; promoted to captain December 13, 1759 – see above

Lieutenant Roderick M’Neill, of Barra (c1723-1759) [Rory McNiell PRO, WO64-12] – s/o Roderick MacNeill 19th of Barra & Alice MacLeod of Luskintyre – eldest son of the chief of the MacNeills [Wallace]. The Duke of Argyl said, “Rory McNeil Laird of Barra, it is believed will go himself, if not, his brother certainly will & either can easily raise men” [CU49/5]. Gazetted a lieutenant on January 20, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; killed at battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759 [PRO, C5/51].

Lieutenant William M’Donell (c1727-1779) [Willm McDonell PRO, WO64-12] – s/o Ranald MacDonell 17th of Clanranald & Margaret MacLeod of Luskintyre [sister of Alice MacLeod, wife of Roderick MacNeill of Barra]. William, younger half-brother of Captain Donald « Gorm » M’Donell of Benbecula who was killed at Ste-Foy on April 28, 1760, was gazetted a lieutenant on January 21, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]. The monthly return of November 1759 lists him as having “gone to continent for recovery”. He resigned on December 12, 1759, and became tacksman of Ormiclate in South Uist, where he died in 1779 [Wallace].

Lieutenant Archibald Roy Campbell – gazetted a lieutenant January 23, 1757; made captain-lieutenant December 13, 1759; promoted to captain April 29, 1760; commanded a company in 1763 – see above

Lieutenant John Fraser [1], of Culbokie – gazetted a lieutenant January 24, 1757; appointed Quartermaster September 27, 1758; resigned QM April 22, 1759; promoted to captain April 15, 1760; commanded a company in 1763 – see above

Lieutenant Hector M’Donald (c1732-1760) [Hector McDonell PRO, WO64-12] – s/o Alexander MacDonald of Boisdale & Margaret MacLean of Coll – gazetted a lieutenant on January 27, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; fought at the battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759; died on May 8, 1760 of wounds received at the battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760. He is mentioned in Malcolm Fraser’s Journal: “… Lieutenant Hector McDonald and Ensign Malcolm Fraser died of their wounds, all very much regretted by every one who knew them.” [Harper, p. 103]

Lieutenant John « Dubh » Fraser [2] aka John McTavish (c1702-1775) – gazetted as a lieutenant on January 30, 1757. Harper has Simon Fraser at this date [Appendix B] and also lists John Fraser “of Culbokie” at this date (Appendix D) . Harper lists a John Fraser among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; Wallace calls him “of Culbokie” and says he was promoted to captain about 1761, and remained in Canada, but the PMG Ledgers show that it was the John Fraser whose commission was dated January 24, 1757 who did this. John Fraser appears consistently on the Army lists from 1757 to 1763, while Lieut. John McTavish does not; and Harry Duckworth thinks this must be John McTavish of Little Garth who was born in Inverness-shire, Scotland. His brother Alexander McTavish was initially proposed as a lieutenant in the new-raising 78th by the Duke of Argyll, described as « brother to McTavis of Garthbeg who is head of a small tribe »; but in the end John McTavish of Garthbeg took the commission himself. He was nearly sixty years old when he joined the 78th, fought at Louisbourg in 1758; fell sick when the regiment gathered at Louisbourg for the 1759 expedition against Quebec under Wolfe. An army return dated October 8, 1759 by General Monckton shows « Lieut Jno. McTavish », as of June 4, 1759 he « left sick at Louisbourg » so he did not participate in the siege of Quebec and the subsequent battle on the Plains of Abraham. He rejoined his regiment by 1760 and fought at the battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760, but like many others, sickened with scurvy and deteriorated. Governor Murray interceded on his behalf and General Amherst gave permission for the sixty year old lieutenant to be sent home in the fall of 1761, « as it would be an act of charity to him and his family. » An absent officers list shows him as having « gone to England 12th Octr. 1761 by General Amherst’s leave. » J. M’Tavish was the senior lieutenant cited on the list of officers on half-pay in 1763 and he died on March 2, 1775. His daughter Elizabeth married a fellow 78th officer, Lieut Hugh Fraser.

Lieutenant Simon Fraser [4] (c1738-1813) – son of a tacksman – gazetted a lieutenant on January 30, 1757; not a captain-lieutenant, as stated by Major General David Stewart of Garth and often confused with Brigadier Simon Fraser [3] of Balnain, killed at Saratoga; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; wounded at the battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760; appointed Quartermaster on January 16, 1763; resigned QM on March 14, 1763; retired on half-pay as a lieutenant, December 24, 1763. Raised and commanded a company for the 71st Foot (Fraser’s Highlanders), in which he was gazetted the senior captain on November 23, 1775; promoted to major on October 14, 1778, serving in America until 1781 and retired on half-pay when the 71st was disbanded in 1783. On March 1, 1794 he raised the 133rd Regiment and was gazetted its colonel on August 22, 1794. Fraser became a major-general in 1795 and was given the local rank of lieutenant-general November 30, 1796, while commanding a force of British troops stationed in Portugal from 1797-1800. He was, for some years, second-in-command of the forces in North Britain and in 1806 was appointed Colonel of the 6th West India Regiment. He died in Scotland on March 21, 1813.

Lieutenant Alexander M’Donell (c1733-1759) – s/o Coll Macdonell of Barisdale & Catherine Mackenzie of Balmuchie – cousin of John Macdonell of Scotus (Spanish John) – gazetted a lieutenant on February 2, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; one of eight lieutenants stationed at Fort Stanwix during the winter of 1758/59; mortally wounded at battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759 [PRO, C5/51].

Lieutenant Donald M’Lean – The Duke of Argyll called him “brother to the Laird of Isle Muck” [CU49/5] – gazetted a lieutenant on February 4, 1757 [declined, Alex Campbell 7th May 1757 PRO, WO64-12].

Lieutenant John [Macgregor] Murray (c1733-1758) – s/o Robert [Macgregor] Murray of Glencarnoch & Christian Campbell of Roro. The Duke of Argyll originally proposed him as ensign, with the remark “has good interest in the highland of Perthshire” [CU49/5]. Gazetted a lieutenant on February 6, 1757. Harper lists James Murray, in place of John Murray, among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C], although it was John Murray who was killed in the siege trenches at Louisbourg while serving as a grenadier officer on June 8, 1758 [William Amherst’s Journal].

Lieutenant Simon Fraser [5] – gazetted as a lieutenant on February 8, 1757. Styled « Simon Tenakyle » by another Fraser officer serving at Ticonderoga in 1758, he was killed at Louisbourg on 8 June 1758, leaving a wife Jean Gray and three young children in Scotland [Millar (1909), p. 112]. Harper only refers to Lieutenant Fraser (p. 57) as does William Amherst’s Journal (p. 71).

Lieutenant John M’Dougall – gazetted a lieutenant on February 10, 1757, but resigned before the regiment sailed to North America in favour of John Douglas, commissioned 18th June 1757 [PRO, WO64-12].

Lieutenant Alexander Fraser Sr [2] (c1729-1799) – gazetted a lieutenant on February 12, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; one of eight lieutenants stationed at Fort Stanwix during the winter of 1758/59; wounded at battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759 [PRO, C5/51], and again at Sillery on April 28, 1760; retired on half-pay in 1763. One of several officers who decided to stay in Canada, he purchased from Brigadier-General James Murray, the seigneury of La Martiniere or Beauchamp, near Quebec, and later acquired two others. azetted a captain on June 14, 1775 in the 1st Battalion, 84th Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants). His last will and testament indicates a close relationship to Alexander Fraser of Strichen, whose grandson inherited the Lovat estates, by entail, after the death in 1815 of Archibald Campbell Fraser of Lovat, without legitimate surviving issue. Alexander died at St. Charles on April 19, 1799, “aged about seventy years ».

Lieutenant Alexander Campbell – gazetted lieutenant May 7, 1757; promoted to captain October 5, 1760; commanded a company in 1763 – see above

Lieutenant John Douglas (c1730-1759) – a former subaltern in the 2nd Battalion of Halkett’s regiment in the Dutch-Scots Brigade, he was gazetted a lieutenant on June 18, 1757 after John MacDougall’s resignation; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; one of eight lieutenants stationed at Fort Stanwix during the winter of 1758/59; wounded at battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759. The monthly return of Oct. 24, 1759 describes him as “gone to continent for recovery of his wounds”. According to Malcolm Fraser’s Journal, he “died of his wound soon afterwards ». The Succession Book records his subsequent death on July 9, 1760.

Lieutenant John Nairne – gazetted lieutenant July 16, 1757; promoted to captain April 24, 1761; commanded a company in 1763 – see above

« Roster of the Officers of the Detachment of the 78th Regiment now lying at Quebec 1762″ in Captain John Nairne’s Orderly Book, 8 May 1762 – 31 December 1762, MC 23, G III 23, Vol. 4

John Campbell, Major
Hugh Cameron, Capt
John Fraser do.
Alex Campbell do.

Lieut. Alex Fraser, snr (Grenadiers)
John McDonnell
Ens Malm McPherson
Lieut David Baillie
Lieut Ewan Cameron
Ens Archd Fraser
Lieut McAllester
Lieut Alex. Fraser, jnr
Ens McQueen
Lieut John Fraser
Lieut McKenzie
Ens Alex Fraser
Lieut Malm Fraser
Lieut Dond McNeill
Ens McPherson
Lieut Henderson
Lieut Menzies

Lieutenant Arthur Rose (c1730-c1800) – s/o Hugh Rose 15th of Kilravock & Katharine Porteous (3rd wife), Arthur was a lieutenant in the Scots Brigade in Holland. Gazetted a lieutenant on July 17, 1757; listed among the offices who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; one of eight lieutenants stationed at Fort Stanwix during the winter of 1758/59; wounded at the battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760; and exchanged as a lieutenant in Captain Archibald Campbell’s company to half-pay in 1763 on the regiment’s disbandment. He returned to active duty 16 years later as a lieutenant in the Pendennis Castle Invalid Company and exchanged five years later into an Invalid Company closer to home at Berwick-on-Tweed. The following year, his former regimental colleague, John Macdonell of Leek, took over command of the company.

Lieutenant Alexander Fraser Jr [3] (c1735-1797) – started his military career as an ensign in the 38th Foot on February 13, 1757, but transferred on promotion to lieutenant on July 22, 1757 in one of the three Additional Companies authorized for the 78th Foot that summer. He arrived in the spring of 1758 with his company in time to participate in the siege of Louisbourg; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; wounded at the battle of Sillery (Ste-Foy) on April 28, 1760. In 1762, he was listed as Lieutenant of Grenadiers stationed at Quebec. Travelled down the Ohio and Mississippi after the Pontiac Rebellion. Gazetted a lieutenant October 25, 1766 in the 9th Regiment of Foot, Ireland; promoted to captain-lieutenant May 13, 1776, but exchanged August 2, 1776 to the 20th Foot, and transferred again to the 34th Foot, promoted captain November 11, 1776. He was detached from his regimental organization in 1776 and 1777, and served with the Indians, having been appointed Assistant Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Canada. There are several references to a special unit of British marksmen known as Fraser’s rangers, led by Alexander Fraser, thought to be a nephew of Brig-General Simon Fraser of Balnain (1729-77) who died at Saratoga [A Journal Kept in Canada and Upon Burgoyne’s Campaign in 1776 and 1777, by Lieut. James M. Hadden (Albany, NY: Joel Munsell’s Sons, 1884) p. 473-476]. He was transferred on promotion to major in the 34th Foot on November 18, 1790, lieutenant-colonel « in the Army » on March 1, 1794. On September 1, 1795 he was lieutenant-colonel of the 45th Regiment; they were in the West Indies from 1795-1807, leading an uneventful life, but suffered terribly from disease. “In 1797 and 1798 no less than 13 officers died, namely, Lieut.-Colonel Frazer; Captains Morrison and Hutchinson…” [History of the 45th : 1st Nottinghamshire Regiment (Sherwood Foresters) by Col. P.H. Dalbiac, Late Captain 45th Regiment (1902) p. 18]. The Succession Book states he died October 4, 1797.

Lieutenant John M’Donell [2], of Leek (c1727-1813) – s/o Angus Macdonell 4th of Leek – gazetted a lieutenant on July 23, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C], and wounded during the siege and capture June-July, 1758; allowed to go home in fall of 1761 on account of his health; exchanged (acting as Ensign) on November 14, 1763 to 15th Foot; appointed Quartermaster on November 14, 1763, 15th Foot, 1770 ranked as lieutenant; resigned QM on May 1, 1775; transferred on promotion to captain on August 27, 1776 in 1st/71st Foot (Fraser’s Highlanders); half-pay June 4, 1784; full pay June 3, 1787, and died at Berwick, England, while a captain of Invalids [Wallace]. He should not be confused with John MacDonell of Leek, who was one of the group leaders on the Pearl that sailed to America in 1773, and died in Montreal in 1782.

Lieutenant Cosmo Gordon (c1740-1760) – gazetted a lieutenant on July 24, 1757 and came over to North America in one of the three Additional Companies in spring of 1758; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; one of eight lieutenants stationed at Fort Stanwix during the winter of 1758/59; fought at battle of Plains of Abraham in 1759; killed at battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760; mentioned in Malcolm Fraser’s Journal: “Captain Donald MacDonald who commanded the volunteer company of the Army, and Lieutenant Cosmo Gordon who commanded the Light Infantry Company of our regiment, were both killed in the field…” [Harper, p. 103].

Lieutenant David Baillie (c1740-c1785) – gazetted a lieutenant on July 26, 1757 and came over to North America in one of the three Additional Companies in spring of 1758; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; fought at Louisbourg in 1758, Plains of Abraham in 1759 and Sillery in 1760. The absent officers list shows Lieut. Bailey gone to England 12th Octbr. 1761 by General Amherst’s leave, apparently “to get rid of some difficulties in money matters” [Amherst to Murray, Aug. 11, 1761; PRO, WO34/3, f. 105]; retired on half-pay in 1763. Amherst refused to allow his purchase of John Macpherson’s captaincy, ahead of the more senior John Nairne in the same year.

Lieutenant Evan Cameron, of Glennevis [Evan Cameron PRO, WO64-12] – son of Alexander Cameron of Glennevis & Mary Cameron of Dungallon – a Dutch-Scots officer gazetted an ensign on January 5, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; promoted to lieutenant on June 9, 1758 after the Louisbourg landings; wounded July 31, 1759 in the ill-fated assault at Montmorency; exchanged to half-pay on disbandment of regiment in 1763.

Lieutenant Allan Stewart (1735-c1781) [Allan Stuart PRO, WO64-12] – a captain in Stewarts of Appin, who, with his brother, Captain Alexander Stewart of Invernahyle, were both wounded at Culloden [Muster Roll of Prince Charles Edward Stuart’s Army 1745-46]. The Duke of Argyll said he “has a good interest & connections in Argyllshire” [CU49/5]. Gazetted an ensign on January 7, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; promoted to lieutenant on June 10, 1758 « in room of » John Cuthbert killed at the Louisbourg landings; fought at battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759 and Sillery in 1760; exchanged to half-pay on disbandment of regiment on December 24, 1763.

Lieutenant Simon Fraser [6] – gazetted an ensign on January 9, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; promoted to lieutenant on June 18, 1758 in room of Simon « Tenakyle » Fraser killed; fought at battle of Plains of Abraham in 1759 and Sillery in 1760; died October 4, 1760 and was replaced by Alexander Gilchrist.

Lieutenant Archibald M’Allister – second son of Charles McAllister of Loup, Kintyre, who for many years commanded the 35th Regiment. Gazetted an ensign on January 13, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; promoted to lieutenant on July 23, 1758; fought at battle of Plains of Abraham in 1759; wounded at Sillery on April 28, 1760; a lieutenant in Captain John Macdonell’s company on disbandment, he exchanged to half-pay in December 1763.

Lieutenant James Murray (c1740-1784) – gazetted a lieutenant on September 15, 1758; listed by Harper as a lieutenant among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C] for the siege and capture June-July, 1758; fought at battle of Plains of Abraham in 1759 and Sillery in 1760; a lieutenant in Captain Hugh Fraser’s company on disbandment, he exchanged to half-pay in 1763. He returned to active service as a captain on January 21, 1780 in the new raising 2nd Battalion of the 42nd during the American Revolution, his commission being free but no prospect of half-pay at the end of the war. He died on December 1, 1784.

Lieutenant Alexander Fraser [4] (c1732-1814) – s/o Thomas Fraser 2nd of Garthmore & Marjory Macgillivray of Dalcrombie – gazetted an ensign on January 15, 1757; promoted to lieutenant on September 27, 1758. Harper lists two lieutenants named Alexander Fraser among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]. Wallace identifies him with the Lieut. Alexander Fraser who remained in Canada, but he must actually be Alexander Fraser of Bunchegavie in Stratherrick, second son of Thomas Fraser of Garthmore [Millar (1909), p. 111]; wounded at Ste-Foy on April 28, 1760; a lieutenant in Captain John Macdonell’s company on disbandment, he exchanged to half-pay in 1763. The will of Capt. Thomas Fraser of Boleskine, Co. Inverness refers to his father as Capt. Alexander Fraser, late of Bunchgavy, who had served in North America under Wolfe, but it is likely that Alexander later became a captain in the local militia. He died on May 2, 1814.

Lieutenant Donald Cameron (c1741-1817) – s/o John Cameron of Fassifern & Jean Campbell of Achalader – nephew of Lochiel; gazetted a lieutenant on September 30, 1758 in the 14th Additional Company; listed by Harper as a lieutenant among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C] for the siege and capture June-July, 1758; fought at battle of Plains of Abraham on Septemer 13, 1759; wounded at Sillery on April 28, 1760; retired as a lieutenant in Captain Alexander MacLeod’s company on half-pay in 1763. Major-General Stewart states that he “died a lieutenant on half-pay in 1817″.

Lieutenant John Campbell [3] (c1740-1760) – gazetted an ensign on September 27, 1758; listed by Harper as an ensign among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C] for the siege and capture; promoted to lieutenant on December 13, 1758; Lt. Campbell and three private soldiers of the 78th with Murray’s force of 2100 men sailing upriver to Montreal were killed by enemy artillery fire on July 16, 1760 passing the village of Deschambault.

Lieutenant John Fraser [3], of Errogie (1734-1810) – s/o Angus Fraser 3rd of Errogie [likely by Janet Fraser his first wife, not by Jean Fraser, his second wife and a sister of Brigadier-General Simon Fraser of Balnain]. Gazetted an ensign on January 19, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; promoted to lieutenant on April 22, 1759; retired on half-pay in 1763. John Fraser of Errogie, ygr thereof in 1774, was an original member of the Black Watch and a lieutenant in Fraser’s Highlanders. According to his obituary, 20 April 1810: « Died, at Errogie, on the 14th curt, in the 76th year of his age, Captain John Fraser; a most respectable and worthy character. He served as a Light Infantry officer during the whole of the immortal Wolfe’s campaign, with whom his activity made him much in favour. He also witnessed his glorious death » [which is unlikely, since only three officers were with Wolfe when he died; Benjamin West’s painting in the 1770s shows Col. Simon Fraser of Lovat, because Fraser of Lovat paid for the privilege]. John Fraser, who may later have been a captain in the local militia, married Anna, daughter of Thomas Fraser of Gortuleg, and was father of Captain Simon Fraser, tenant of Knockie, whose celebrated « Collection of Highland Music » was first published in 1816, a new edition appearing in 1874, from an amended copy left by Simon’s son, Angus. Simon Fraser refers obliquely to his paternal grandfather, maternal grandfather, and to his father [Lieut. John Fraser] as the individual who scaled the heights of Abraham in 1759 with his relative [Captain, later Brig-General] Simon Fraser who fell at Saratoga in 1777. Simon doesn’t actually say that Jean Fraser, of Balnain (1722-68), then married (1759) to his paternal grandfather Angus, was the mother of John Fraser (1734-1810), and thereby Simon’s grandmother, as various writers have mistakenly assumed, by implication, based on notes attributed to Captain Simon Fraser of Knockie.

Lieutenant John Chisholm (c1740-c1807) – gazetted an ensign on January 17, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; promoted to lieutenant on September 4, 1759 « in room of » Simon Fraser; fought at all major battles and sieges of the regiment; wounded at Sillery on April 28, 1760 and was the sole lieutenant serving in Major James Abercrombie’s company on disbandment; retired on half-pay in 1763.

Lieutenant Simon Fraser [7] (c1740-1760) – gazetted an ensign on January 21, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; promoted to lieutenant on September 25, 1759; wounded at the battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760, and died several weeks later on August 23, 1760.

Lieutenant James M’Kenzie, 4th of Ardloch (c1740-1781) – s/o Alexander Mackenzie 3rd of Ardloch & Margaret Sutherland – gazetted an ensign on May 7, 1757; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; promoted to lieutenant on September 25, 1759 [Wallace, in error, gives 1758]; wounded “slightly” at battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759; exchanged to half-pay on the regiment’s disbandment in 1763, but returned to active service as a lieutenant with the 12th Foot in December 1770. Ian McCulloch advises that Ardloch transferred on promotion to captain on December 19, 1777 in the 1st/73rd Foot (MacLeod’s Highlanders) and his regiment was initially assigned garrison duties in Jersey, largest of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. He was promoted the major before it was shipped out to Madras, India where it distinguished itself in fighting against the armies of Hyder Ali and the Tippo Sultan. He was killed in action at the battle of Perambaucum on August 28, 1781.

Lieutenant Malcolm Fraser [1] (1733-1815) – s/o Donald Fraser & Janet McIntosh – gazetted an ensign on July 18, 1757 and came to America with one of the three Additional Companies; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; promoted to lieutenant on September 25, 1759 [Wallace, in error, gives 1758]; wounded at battle of Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759, wounded again at Sillery on April 28, 1760; appointed adjutant on July 24, 1760; retired as a lieutenant in Captain Hugh Cameron’s company on half-pay in 1763. Purchased the seigneury of Mount Murray from Brigadier-General James Murray. On the outbreak of the American Revolution, he helped recruit former Fraser Highlanders for the 1st Battalion, 84th Regiment (Royal Highland Emigrants), in which he was gazetted a captain on June 24, 1775. In 1797 he was breveted major « in the Army » and a captain in the 1st Battalion, 60th Regiment of Foot but, as the regiment was ordered to embark for England [August 3, 1798 Military papers, C931, p. 106-107], and he wished to remain in Canada, he resigned and “the sale of his commission was ratified in the London Gazette” [October 8, 1798 Military papers, C931, p. 109-109a]. Several articles have been published in Canadian Explorer about the family of Malcolm Fraser, including his grandson John Fraser de Berry. He died on July 17, 1815, aged 82.

The following example is provided to illustrate how easy it is to misinterpret historical information which has been repeated by various historians over an extended period of time:

In “Scottish Highlanders and the American Revolution”, G. Murray Logan wrote that Captain Malcolm Fraser and Captain Colin Campbell had picked up almost 100 recruits in Newfoundland [p. 17]. In “Canada Invaded 1775-1776”, George F.G. Stanley wrote that Malcolm Fraser had been recruiting 130 Irishmen in St. John’s, Newfoundland [p. 84]. In “John Warren et son Epoque”, Jean Pelletier noted that John Warren, who settled at Murray Bay, was of Scottish origin, and Pelletier may have been the first to discover that Warren had been recruited by Malcolm Fraser at the Island of St. John’s [now Prince Edward Island] instead of St. John’s, Newfoundland; he cites the “Journal kept in Quebec in 1775” (Salem, Mass: Essex Institute, 1914) by James Jeffry (1733-1807), wherein the latter records on 17th Aug. 1775: “This day heard that Gerald Fitzgerald, Attorney-at-Law, had gone a voluntire in The Royal Highland Emigrants & that he was to go off this evg for Nfland to raise recruits” [p. 131]. In the Memorial of Captain Malcolm Fraser, dated at Quebec, 31st March, 1791, he wrote: “That in the year 1775 he was ordered on the recruiting service to the Island of St. John’s and returned to Quebec in November of that year with a considerable number of men…[NAC Series C. Vol. 15, p. 18]. Pelletier also cites, as reference, the payroll of the men recruited by Malcolm Fraser, listing the names of 36 men, with the date of their enlistment, indicating that most, if not all, were of Scottish origin [NAC, MG23, K1, Vol. 32, File No. 7]. In his subsequent Memorial, dated at Quebec, 7th October 1794, Malcolm Fraser, Captain and late Paymaster of the first Battalion of His Majesty’s late 84th Regiment of foot or Royal Highland Emigrants, states that he returned in the month of November of that year [1775] to Quebec with about forty Recruits [Military Papers C187, p. 3-4, Ottawa Reel C-2780]. Researcher Paul Lessard has found that Malcolm Fraser had his half-pay stopped because of some disagreement with the army regarding his job as paymaster of the 84th Regiment; that Fraser wrote about having spent the winter of 1796 in London, England, where he remained for two years to recover his half-pay.

Lieutenant Donald M’Neill (c1740-1762) – gazetted an ensign on July 20, 1757 in one of the three Additional Companies; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; fought at Plains of Abraham in 1759; promoted to lieutenant on October 17, 1759 [Wallace, in error, gives 1758]; wounded at Sillery on April 28, 1760. The absent officers list shows Lieutt. MacNeil gone to the Southern Colonies 20th Octbr. 1761 by leave of General Murray. He died on October 16, 1762.

Lieutenant Henry Munro (c1740-c1800) – gazetted an ensign on July 23, 1757 in one of the three Additional Companies; listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; fought at the battle of Plains of Abraham in 1759; promoted to lieutenant on December 12, 1759; wounded at Sillery on April 28, 1760; exchanged to half-pay on the regiment’s disbandment in 1763. He returned to Scotland; returning to active service with the Black Watch on August 26, 1775 and went to North America; transferred to the 1st/71st Foot (Fraser’s Highlanders) to command the Colonel’s company as captain-lieutenant on February 2, 1779 and on August 25, 1779 was promoted to full captain. He retired on December 1, 1781.

Lieutenant Hugh Fraser [2] (c1730-1814) – Harper lists Hugh Fraser as adjutant among the staff officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C], which identifies him as the original adjutant appointed to this position on January 12, 1757. Gazetted an ensign on June 9, 1758; promoted to lieutenant on April 29, 1760; retired on half-pay in 1763. Wallace says he was probably of the Foyers family, and identifies him with Capt. Hugh Fraser, 84th Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants), but his name appears continuously in the 78th half-pay lists. Hugh Fraser married Elizabeth, a daughter of Lieut. John McTavish of the 78th, tried his fortune in the Colony of New York with the help of Sir William Johnson. By November 1780, disenchanted with the ongoing war, Hugh returned to Scotland with his family and settled on a farm called Brightmony, near Auldearn, Nairnshire; he died at Perth on January 21, 1814, aged 83. That the Lieut. Hugh Fraser who survived until 1813 was McTavish’s son-in-law is confirmed by the fact that his agent on the Half-Pay Ledgers in that year was McTavish’s London firm of McTavish, Fraser & Co. According to Charles Fraser-Mackintosh [The Confederacy of Clan Chattan (Glasgow, 1898) pp. 63 ff.], “Hugh Fraser, is said to have been a great-grandson of Malcolm Fraser of Culduthel, but the names of his father and grandfather have not been found.” Duncan Fraser gives an overview of the family in William Fraser, Senior, U.E., and His Descendants in Fulton County, New York and Grenville County, Ontario (Johnstown, New York, 1964) pp. 25-30.

Lieutenant Alexander Gregorson, of Ardtornish (1730-1789) – s/o James Macgregor & Elizabeth Campbell of Airds – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on June 10, 1758 after the death of Lieutenant John Cuthbert created a vacancy. Col Fraser recommended him for the promotion before the regiment sailed for Halifax and Louisbourg in a letter, 23 April 1758, to Lord Loudoun citing Gregorson as « very strongly recommended by Colonel Campbell & to whose friends I am so much indebted that I should take his being provided for as a very great favor. » Gregorson, AKA Macgregor, was listed among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; fought at Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759; slightly wounded at at battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760, where he was taken prisoner and almost killed by Indians; promoted to lieutenant on April 29, 1760. The absent officers list shows Lieutt. Grigerson gone to England 23rd Octbr. 1760 by General Amherst’s leave. He exchanged to half-pay on disbandment of the regiment in 1763. He returned to active service in on January 23, 1788 as a 58 year old lieutenant in the Landguard Fort Invalid Company, and was discharged dead the following year.

Lieutenant James Henderson (c1740-1768) – s/o Donald Macpherson of Breakachie & Christian Macpherson of Cluny – gazetted an ensign on July 23, 1758; listed by Harper as an ensign among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]; promoted to lieutenant on May 8, 1760; exchanged to half-pay on disbandment of the regiment in 1763. He died on September 20, 1768.

Lieutenant Lachlan M’Pherson (c1740-1766) – s/o Donald Macpherson of Breakachie, a devout Jacobite and a former captain in the Clan Chattan regiment – served initially as a Surgeon’s Mate, but was gazetted an ensign on April 22, 1759 before the regiment departed New York to join Wolfe’s expeditionary force at Louisbourg; promoted to lieutenant on July 9, 1760; listed as Surgeon in Major John Campbell’s company when regiment was disbanded in 1763, but was only « acting » in that capacity; exchanged to half-pay. He returned to active service on August 2, 1765 as a lieutenant in Captain Francis Macmillan’s new-raising African Independent company, and died in Africa from disease on December 5, 1766.

Lieutenant Charles Stewart (c1730-1780) – son of John Roy Stewart, colonel commandant of Roy Stewart’s Edinburgh Regiment at the battle of Culloden, a former officer in both British and French forces and one of the few professional soldiers in the Jacobite army [Muster Roll of Prince Charles Edwart Stuart’s Army 1745-46 (Aberdeen University Press, 1984)]. Gazetted an ensign on September 25, 1759 after the battle of the Plains of Abraham; wounded at battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760; promoted to lieutenant on July 23, 1760; a lieutenant in Captain Ranald Macdonell’s grenadier company on disbandment of the regiment, he exchanged to half-pay in 1763.

Lieutenant Robert Menzies (c1740-c1809) – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on September 15, 1758; listed by Harper as an ensign among the officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C] for the siege and capture in June-July, 1758; wounded at Sillery on April 28, 1760; promoted to lieutenant on August 23, 1760; a lieutenant in Captain Hugh Cameron’s company on disbandment of the regiment, he exchanged to half-pay in 1763. Wallace mistakenly suggests that he was the major of the same name who served in the 84th Foot (RHE) who was subsequently killed at Boston in 1776, but the Commission and Succession books, as well as Menzies’ coninuous presence on the 78th Foot’s half-pay ledgers and, in particular, the fact that he drew half pay as late as 1798, do not support such a claim.

Lieutenant Alexander Gilchrist (c1735-1780) – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on September 25, 1759 after the battle of the Plains of Abraham; promoted to lieutenant on October 4, 1760 in room of Simon Fraser [6]; retired on half-pay in 1763. He returned to active service on December 21, 1777 as a captain in the new-raising 1st Battalion of the 73rd Foot (MacLeod’s Highlanders) with his old regimental colleague, James Mackenzie of Ardloch, and was initially assigned garrison duties in Jersey, largest of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. Sent to India in 1779 under the command of Lord MacLeod, he fought in several major battles. Though sick with fever, Gilchrist fought at the disastrous battle of Conjevaram against the forces of Huder Ali, September 10, 1780, but died on the retreat to Chingleput on September 12, 1780.

Lieutenant William Robertson (c1740-1800) – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on October 17, 1759; wounded at battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760; promoted to lieutenant on October 5, 1760 in room of John Campbell [3] killed at Deschambault. The absent officers list shows Lieutt. Robertson gone to England 12th Octbr. 1760, wounded, by Governor Murray’s leave. He never returned to the regiment, instead raising his own Highland Independent Company and exchanging to half-pay in January 1763. He returned to active service as a captain in the 36th Foot on December 25, 1770 and served with that regiment for the next 13 years. While serving during the 2nd Mysore War in India, he had had enough soldiering, and exchanged into a junior regiment, the 104th Foot stationed in Ireland. On his return from India, he immediately went on half-pay. He ended his career by returning to full pay as a captain of an Invalid Company on October 20, 1790.

Lieutenant George Fraser – an ensign (23 June 1760) with the Royal Americans, he came to the 78th when promoted to lieutenant on April 24, 1761. On disbandment of the regiment, he was serving in Captain Hugh Fraser’s company and exchanged to half-pay in December 1763; received half-pay for 1766, 1768, 1770-75 (first half) [PMG4 Ledgers].

Lieutenant John Fraser [4] (c1740-c1785) – gazetted an ensign on February 21, 1757; promoted to lieutenant on January 2, 1762 – nephew of William Fraser of Balloan and of Donald Fraser in Easter Borlum, who was trying to get a lease of the farm of Bunchegavie from the Commissioners of Annexed Estates in 1769 [Millar (1909), pp. 130, 142-3]. Duncan Warrand [Some Fraser Pedigrees (1934), p. 108], gives an account of the Balloan family, which does not mention a John Fraser, so the connections are unclear. The natural interpretation of Lieut. John Fraser’s statements in his petitions is that he was son of either a brother or a sister of William and Donald Fraser of Balloan. Descendants of John Fraser of Easter Bunchegavie claim that their ancestor was a Lieutenant in the 78th, and that he had a son Alexander Fraser, in Knockie & later in Bunoich, who came to Canada with siblings but returned to Scotland. According to Harry Duckworth, the Boleskine OPR for the 1779 birth/baptism of Alexr. Fraser (s/o John Fraser & Margaret Fraser) does not confirm the identity of the father as late Lieutenant 78th, a common practice for someone who had served in the military, but it is acknowledged that many of the Boleskine/Fort Augustus records were reconstructed after the fact. Ian Clapham in NZ claims that this is the story handed down in the family.

Lieutenant Archibald Fraser, of Culbokie – s/o William Fraser of Culbokie and Guisachan & Margaret Macdonell of Ardnabie – a gentleman volunteer described as brother of “our quartermaster” he was gazetted an ensign on April 7, 1760; promoted to lieutenant on June 23, 1762 vice Alexander Gregorson who retired on his pay in June 1762. Archie exchanged to half-pay on the regiment’s disbandment in 1763. He was later a major in the Glengarry Fencibles, serving in Ireland during the rebellion of 1798, and died at Guisachen, Inverness-shire, unmarried.

Lieutenant Alexander Fraser [5] (c1740-1766) – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on December 13, 1759; promoted to lieutenant on October 14, 1762; exchanged to half-pay in 1763. He died on June 1, 1766.

Lieutenant George Peacock (1748-1780) – born in Ireland, Peacock was commissioned a lieutenant on March 2, 1763 vice William Robertson who was promoted in Scotland, and given his own IHC. He served less than nine months with Fraser’s Highlanders before exchanging to half-pay in December 1763. He returned to active service as a lieutenant in the 7th Foot on January 7, 1767; promoted to captain on January 18, 1777; served with that regiment until his death on October 19, 1780.

Lieutenant James Babbidge (c1730-c1791) – an English NCO and experienced QM of the 15th Foot who exchanged with John Macdonell of Leek as a lieutenant on November 14, 1763 so that the latter could serve in an older regiment and continue his military career. Babbidge went on half-pay with most other 78th officers the following month and returned to England. He returned briefly to full pay as a lieutenant in the Plymouth Invalid Company on December 30, 1789 but would appear to have died in 1791.

Ensign Ewen Cameron [Evan Cameron PRO WO64-12] – gazetted ensign January 5, 1757; promoted to lieutenant June 9, 1758 – see above

Ensign Allan Stewart [Allan Stuart PRO WO64-12] – gazetted ensign January 7, 1757; promoted to lieutenant June 10, 1758 – see above

Ensign Simon Fraser [6] – gazetted ensign January 9, 1757; promoted to lieutenant June 18, 1758 – see above

Ensign Lachlan M’Lachlan – The Duke of Argyll called him “brother to the Laird of McLachlan in Argyllshire” [CU49/5] – gazetted an ensign on January 11, 1757 [declines, replaced by James Mackenzie of Ardloch on 7th May 1757 PRO, WO64-12]

Ensign Archibald M’Allister – gazetted ensign January 13, 1757; promoted to lieutenant July 23, 1758 – see above

Ensign Alexander Fraser [4] – gazetted ensign January 15, 1757; promoted to lieutenant September 27, 1758 – see above

Ensign William Fraser – gazetted ensign January 15, 1757 [PRO, WO64-12]

Ensign John Chisholm – gazetted ensign January 17, 1757; promoted to lieutenant September 4, 1759 – see above

Ensign James Fraser – gazetted ensign January 19, 1757 [PRO, WO64-12]

Ensign John Fraser [3], of Errogie – gazetted ensign January 19, 1757; promoted to lieutenant April 22, 1759 – see above

Ensign John Fraser – gazetted ensign January 21, 1757 [PRO, WO64-12]

Ensign Simon Fraser [7] – gazetted January 21, 1757; promoted to lieutenant September 25, 1759 – see above

Ensign James M’Kenzie – gazetted ensign May 7, 1757; promoted to lieutenant September 25, 1759 – see above

Ensign Malcolm Fraser [1] – gazetted ensign July 18, 1757; promoted to lieutenant September 25, 1759 – see above

Ensign Donald M’Neill – gazetted ensign July 20, 1757; promoted to lieutenant October 17, 1759 – see above

Ensign Henry Munro – gazetted ensign July 23, 1757; promoted to lieutenant December 12, 1759 – see above

Ensign Hugh Fraser [2] – gazetted ensign June 9, 1758; promoted to lieutenant April 29, 1760 – see above

Ensign Alexander Gregorson, of Ardtornish – gazetted ensign June 10, 1758; promoted to lieutenant April 29, 1760 – see above

Ensign Malcolm Fraser [2] – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign at Louisbourg on June 18, 1758; died of wounds received at battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760. He is mentioned in Malcolm Fraser’s Journal: “Captain Donald MacDonald who commanded the volunteer company of the Army, and Lieutenant Cosmo Gordon who commanded the Light Infantry Company of our Regiment, were both killed in the field; Lieutenant Hector MacDonald and Ensign Malcolm Fraser died of their wounds, all very much regretted by every one who knew them.” [Harper, p. 103]

Ensign James Henderson – gazetted ensign July 23, 1758; promoted to lieutenant May 8, 1760 – see above

Ensign Robert Menzies – gazetted ensign September 15, 1758; promoted to lieutenant August 23, 1760 – see above

Ensign John Campbell – gazetted ensign September 27, 1758; promoted to lieutenant December 13, 1758 – see above

Ensign Lachlan M’Pherson – gazetted ensign April 22, 1759; promoted to lieutenant July 9, 1760 – see above

Ensign Malcolm M’Pherson, of Phoness (c1700-c1785) – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on September 4, 1759, by which time he was well into his sixties, he was one of Ewan Macpherson of Cluny’s six captains in the Jacobite Rising of 1745-6. One of the strongest men of his day in Badenoch, Macpherson like many other Highlanders of his time, was so much exasperated with the faithless conduct of the French towards Prince Charlie, that he led twenty-five Badenoch men of his own family to join Simon Fraser’s Highlanders to serve under Ewan of Cluny’s brother, John, the « Tutor of Cluny ». Malcolm and Andrew Macpherson, younger of Banchor, were his lieutenants, serving as ‘private men’ or gentlemen volunteers in Macpherson’s company. At the Battle of the Plains of Abraham he distinguished himself in the fighting, hewing down so many Frenchmen that his conduct ultimately attracted the notice of General Townshend, who commanded the army on Wolfe’s death. The absent officers list shows « Ens. Malcolm MacPherson gone to England 18th Octbr. 1759 by General Monckton’s leave. » General Townshend had been so taken with the old Highlander that he included him in his small retinue of officers, which included Captain Simon Fraser of Balnain, and Captain Hervey Smythe, who accompanied him back to England. Macpherson, on arrival in London, as reported in the papers of the day, was presented by General Townshend to George III. He had returned to Scotland by early 1760, for on 23rd January 1760, Malcolm Macpherson of Phoness was made a free burgess and guild brother of the City of Edinburgh for good services, « but particularly for the bravery for which he behaved at the Battle of Quebec ». In 1764, the famous incident of the boycotting of James Macpherson of Killyhunty, involving the residue of the French gold left by Prince Charles in Cluny’s charge in 1746, and subsequently by Cluny in Donald Macpherson of Breakachie’s charge in 1755, adds to the picture of Malcolm of Phoiness. He appears in the papers as Malcolm ‘Gorrach’ Macpherson of Phoness, the nickname implying ‘eccentric’ or ‘daft’. His son, Donald, was married to a daughter of James of Killyhunty, a connection which placed the family in an unenviable position during the boycott. Family tradition states that Malcolm always slept with his broadsword and that when he was dying, requested it be buried with him. The Macphersons of Phoness always cherished the honour that had been bestowed on Malcolm by Townshend and his audience with the King, a pride reflected in the fact that one of his granddaughters was named Townshend Macpherson. « The genealogy and descent of the Phoness Family » 10-15. The Old Church and Churchyard of Kingusssie (St Columba’s). Chapter III. Transcripts of inscriptions in the churchyard with descriptive notes. [Ed: The detailed biographies of Ensign Malcolm M’Pherson and Chaplain Robert M’Pherson, are from the forthcoming book by Lt-Col Ian Macpherson McCulloch, entitled « Sons of the Mountains: A History of the Highland Regiments in North America, 1756-1767″.]

Ensign Charles Stewart – gazetted ensign September 25, 1759; promoted to lieutenant July 23, 1760 – see above

Ensign Alexander Gilchrist – gazetted ensign September 25, 1759; promoted to lieutenant October 4, 1760 – see above

Ensign Duncan Cameron (1739-c1798) – a gentleman volunteer who « carryed arms » in the 78th Foot and fought at Louisbourg in 1758 and on the Plains of Abraham in 1759 – gazetted an ensign on September 25, 1759; wounded at battle of Sillery on April 28, 1760. He was exchanged into the 15th Foot, summer 1760, then exchanged the following year into the 43rd Foot where he would spend the rest of his career.

Ensign William Robertson – gazetted ensign October 17, 1759; promoted to lieutenant October 5, 1760 – see above

Ensign [Alexander?] Campbell – gazetted an ensign on December 12, 1759. On Army list for 1761 & 1763, but not on post-1763 half-pay.

Ensign Alexander Fraser [5] – gazetted an ensign December 13, 1759; promoted to lieutenant October 14, 1762 – see above

Ensign Archibald Fraser, of Culbokie – gazetted ensign April 7, 1760; promoted to lieutenant June 23, 1762 – see above

Ensign James M’Queen – a Dutch-Scots Brigade veteran serving as a gentleman volunteer until a vacancy occurred – gazetted an ensign on April 29, 1760, the day after the battle of Sillery, in which there were a high number of officer casualties. The absent officers list shows Ensn. MacQueen gone to the Southern Colonies 20th Octbr. 1761 by leave of Governor Murray; he had returned by the following year for he is shown on a « Roster of the Officers of the Detachment of the 78th Regiment now lying at Quebec 1762″ in Captain John Nairne’s Orderly Book; exchanged to half-pay in December 1763 as the ensign of Captain Hugh Cameron’s company.

Ensign Kenneth Stewart (c1742-c1800) – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on April 29, 1760; retired on half-pay in 1763 as the ensign of Captain Alexander MacLeod’s company. He returned to active service eight years later as an ensign in the 2nd Foot but resigned the following year.

Ensign Charles Burnet (c1742-c1815) – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on May 8, 1760; exchanged to half-pay in December 1763 as the ensign in Captain John Nairne’s company.

Ensign Malcolm Fraser [3] (c1742-c1785) – gazetted an ensign on July 9, 1760; exchanged to half-pay in December 1763 as the ensign in the Colonel’s company. Harry Duckworth believes he may have been the Ensign Malcolm Fraser who was a purchaser at the sale of the goods of the late Hugh Bain Fraser, Tacksman of Tomvoit, in October 1763 [SRO, Wills proved in the Commissariot Court of Inverness, CC11/1/6, 142-4].

Ensign Kenneth M’Culloch – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on July 9, 1760; exchanged to the 2nd Battalion of the 60th Foot (Royal Americans) as an ensign with John Gregorson in December 1763. In July 1767, was allocated land at St Peter’s Bay, King’s County, PEI. McCulloch was killed at Hanging Rock, South Carolina on August 6, 1780 leading 150 men of the King’s American Legion Infantry in a charge against the American positions. .

Ensign Charles Sinclair (1737-c1795) – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on July 23, 1760; exchanged to half-pay on disbandment in 1763. He returned to active service on October 6, 1779 as an ensign in the Plymouth Invalid Company but transferred almost immediately on promotion to lieutenant of the new 22nd Light Dragoons on December 14, 1779, raised for home service. By March 1782, he was the captain-lieutenant commanding the Colonel’s troop and by the end-year was a full captain commanding his own troop. He exchanged to half-pay on the regiment’s disbandment in June 1783.

Ensign Alexander Campbell – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on July 23, 1760; exchanged to half-pay in December 1763, the ensign of Captain Archie « Roy » Campbell’s company.

Ensign Norman M’Leod – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on July 24, 1760 vice Robert Menzies promoted; exchanged to half-pay in December 1763 as the ensign of Captain Ranald Macdonell’s grenadier company.

Ensign Alexander Fraser [6] (c1743-1810) – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on October 4, 1760 « in room of » Alexander Gilchrist; exchanged to half-pay in 1763.

Ensign John M’Pherson [2] (1727-1815) – commissioned from the ranks as an ensign on October 5, 1760 « in room of » William Robertson; exchanged to half-pay in 1763 as the ensign of Captain Alexander Campbell’s company.

Ensign Allan Cameron (c1742-1767) – a gentleman volunteer gazetted an ensign on June 23, 1762; exchanged to half-pay in December 1763, but returned to active service as an ensign with the 62nd Foot stationed in the West Indies. He died of disease on December 8, 1767.

Ensign John [Macgregor] Gregorson (c1740-1783) – a kinsman of Alexander Gregorson and a last minute transfer before the regiment’s disbandment, allowing Ensign Kenneth McCulloch to carry on with his career in an older regiment that was not being disbanded, in his case, the 60th Foot, Gregorson was gazetted an ensign on December 15, 1763; exchanged to half-pay on December 24, 1763 with the other officers, but returned to active service during the American Revolution as an ensign in the Guernsey Invalid Company. He died on April 25, 1783.

Ensign Joseph Piper (c1740-c1791) – a gentleman volunteer commissioned an ensign on May 19, 1763 « in room of » Malcolm Macpherson of Phoness retired; exchanged to half-pay in December 1763, but returned to active service as an ensign in the 36th Foot on March 29, 1764, then serving in the West Indies. He exchanged to Irish half-pay in May 1766.

Ensign John Fraser – Wallace states that he must have been gazetted an ensign after 1761, for “Ensign John Fraser” (according to the Fraser papers in the Canadian Archives) died at Murray Bay on June 22, 1774. He had rented the seigniory of Mount Murray prior to his death. A document dated January 19, 1765 in the Fraser papers [P-81, No. 85, Quebec Archives] gives an inventory of cattle and utensils to be furnished by Lieut. Malcolm Fraser of Mount Murray to Ensign John Fraser of the 60th Regt., witnessed by John Nairne of Murray Bay, George Thomson, Soldier in 60th Regt., William Fraser, Servant to John Nairne.

Staff Officers:

Chaplain Robert M’Pherson (1731-1791) – s/o John Macpherson 2nd of Banchor & Christian Macpherson of Dalraddie – appointed chaplain on January 12, 1757; The Reverend Robert Macpherson, known affectionately to his men as Caipal Mor (« The Big Chaplain ») because of his towering physique, ensured « their religious discipline was strictly attended to… and was indefatigable in the discharge of his clerical duties, » so much so, that « the men of the regiment were always anxious to conceal their misdemeanors from the Caipal Mor… » [Stewart of Garth, Sketches…, Vol. II]. After the Conquest of Canada in 1760, Macpherson, a Freemason, served as chaplain to the Quebec Select Lodge composed of officers serving in the various regiments then in garrison. Sergeant James Thompson, himself a Free Mason and Senior Warden of Canada Lodge No. 6 in the 78th, recorded that on St John’s Day in the winter of 1761, the members of his lodge « Walked in procession in due form at one o’clock attended by the Reverend Brother Robert Macpherson, Member of the Select Lodge at Quebec from whom we had a sermon on the Occasion in the Church of St Valier. » Solemnities over, the Caipal Mor left the small stone church located on the southern shore of the St Lawrence River across from the Isle d’Orleans, to join Thompson and the rest of his brethren Masons at dinner. He then helped install new lodge officers and afterwards « Spent the Evening in True Harmony & Brotherly Love. » When the lodge closed at 10 o’clock, the records showed that « all Brothers [were] sober and everything in good order and Decorum. » On disbandment of the Fraser Highlanders, Robert Macpherson went on half-pay like many of the 78th officers and returned to Badenoch where he took up residence at Aberarder where he was known for many years by his parishioners as « Parson Robert. » Of his four sons, three entered the army, one of whom attained the rank of Lieutenant-General. Rev. Robert Macpherson was one of the Macphersons of Benchor (Banchor) and his eldest son, John Macpherson, was factor to both Lord Macdonald in Skye and the Lovat Estates at Inverness. The Caipal Mhor died in 1791 and is buried in Perth. [Sketches of the old seats of families and distinguished soldiers, etc., pp. 335-36].

Adjutant Hugh Fraser [2] – appointed adjutant on January 12, 1757; resigned July 24, 1760. – see above

Adjutant Malcolm Fraser [1] – appointed adjutant on July 24, 1760; resigned April 9, 1763. – see above

Adjutant Charles M’Pherson – appointed adjutant on April 9, 1763; half-pay, December 24, 1763.

Quartermaster James Fraser [1] – appointed quartermaster on January 12, 1757; resigned QM June 9, 1758. – see above

Quartermaster John Fraser [1] – appointed quartermaster on September 27, 1758; resigned QM April 15, 1760. – see above

Quartermaster George Gordon – appointed quartermaster on April 15, 1760; resigned QM January 6, 1763.

Quartermaster Simon Fraser [4] – appointed quartermaster on January 6, 1763; resigned QM March 14, 1763. Lieut. Simon Fraser had the quartermaster’s warrant, and was wishing to dispose of it, early in 1763, so he must have succeeded George Gordon. – see above

Quartermaster John Fraser (1745-c1812) – appointed quartermaster on March 14, 1763 in succession to Simon Fraser; exchanged to half-pay, December 24, 1763. A letter of Major James Abercrombie, dated January 3, 1763, describes him as “a young Gentleman of eighteen years old… strongly recommended to me by the officers of the Regiment. He is at present in Scotland…” [PRO, WO34/94 f. 2]; received half-pay 1766, 1768, 1770-76, 1788-89, 1798, not 1813-14 [PMG4 Ledgers].

Surgeon John M’Lean (c1735-1779) – appointed surgeon on January 12, 1757; listed by Harper as surgeon among the staff officers who sailed for Louisbourg in 1758 [Appendix C]. The absent officers list shows John MacLean, Surgeon, gone to England 20th Octbr. 1761 by leave of General Amherst; exchanged to half-pay in December 1763; died May 2, 1779 [Roll of Army Medical Officers].

Lachlan M’Pherson was Surgeon at disbandment of the regiment in 1763, but was only « acting » in MacLean’s absence. – see above

The emails we have received in response to the page on Muster Rolls indicates that there are many people who believe they are descended from the officers and men of the 78th Regiment of Foot, or Fraser’s Highlanders, who served in Canada during the Seven Years War between Britain and France (1757-63), many of whom settled here after the regiment was disbanded in 1763.

In the update to the page on Muster Rolls, I have included the names of those who received subsistance pay/sword money (August/September 1763) when the regiment was disbanded. Any officer or soldier who chose to stay in Canada was rewarded with fourteen days’ subsistance pay and a grant of land, based on his rank and length of service. It should be noted that it was normal military practice for the Black Watch and other British regiments to employ women; normally these were wives who did the washing for the company. If the husband was killed, the wife had to leave within a fortnight. It was not unusual for the husband to arrange for his wife to marry someone else in the event of his death, to retain her status in the company; otherwise she would be left to fend for herself.

With the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, the British Government again called on Simon Fraser of Lovat, by then a major-general and Member of Parliament for Inverness, to raise troops. In December 1775: “His Majesty has approved of the uniform which Major-General Fraser has proposed for the Regiment to which he is appointed Colonel. The facings to be white. The number 71 to be on the buttons. The lace for the button holes to be white with a red worm. No breeches.” With the help of six clan chiefs he gathered 2,340 robust Highlanders, who were so enthusiastic for service that it was necessary to leave some behind. A local paper in 1776 reported that:

“While the English, by all accounts, are so awkward in entering into his Majesty’s service, in order to suppress the unnatural rebellion in America, it is worthy of observation that even the women of Scotland are so fully satisfied of the justice of the cause, that they have endeavoured to be enrolled in General Fraser’s new regiment of Highlanders. One woman, about a fortnight ago, was attested before the Magistrates, in man’s apparel, and thought to be a very proper recruit; but some time after, her husband thought proper to claim her; and as her sex was sufficiently proved, it was necessary to deliver her up. It must, however, be observed, in honour of this Amazon, that she declared herself willing to serve his Majesty; and as a proof of her abilities to do so were nowise inferior to many who had been enlisted in that corps, she offered, before the Magistrates to fight, by single combat, either by fists, or any other way they should think proper, half a dozen she should pitch on of these recruits.

“Another young woman likewise enlisted, but during the time that the sergeant was taking her measure, a prominence in her breast was observed, which discovered her sex; when, in place of giving that reward which her spirit deserved, the impolite sergeant and his corps pawned some of the poor girl’s clothes, in order to pay for the liquor which had been drunk in the business. »

There is no mention of the payment or return of bounty money!

The 71st Regiment of (Highland) Foot assembled at Stirling in April 1776 and disbanded at Perth in 1783. As mentioned previously, the two battalions of the 71st Regiment (Fraser’s Highlanders), consisting of 2,340 officers and men, served with distinction in the American Revolutionary War and, although commissioned as Colonel, the Hon. Simon Fraser of Lovat did not sail with the Regiment to North America.

This information has been compiled by Marie Fraser from various sources over a period of years, and includes extensive research on the subject by Professor Harry Duckworth, with supplementary reference material provided to Prof. Duckworth by Dr. W. Forbes. I would also like to acknowledge the contribution of Lt-Col. Ian M. McCulloch, former Commanding Officer of the Black Watch (RHR) of Canada [1993-96]. And last, but not least, Paul Lessard, for sharing his research about various members of the Old 78th Regiment or Fraser’s Highlanders who settled in Canada, for the benefit of members of Clan Fraser Society of Canada.

Sources:
Malcolm Fraser, « The Capture of Quebec. A Manuscript Journal Relating to the Operations Before Quebec From 8th May, 1759, to 17th May, 1760. Kept by Colonel Malcolm Fraser, then Lieutenant in the 78th Foot (Fraser’s Highlanders) », Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, XVIII (1939), 9. J.R. Harper: « A Short History of the Old 78th Regiment or Fraser’s Highlanders » (1966), with appendices; « The Fraser Highlanders, Second Edition Revised & Indexed » (1995); W.S. Wallace, biographical information from « Some Notes on Fraser’s Highlanders » Canadian Historical Review, Vol. 18, pp. 131-140 (1937); Duncan Warrand, « Some Fraser Pedigrees » (1934); Alexander Mackenzie, « History of the Frasers of Lovat » (1896); A.H. Millar, « A Selection of Forfeited Estates Papers » (1909); SSCA2, « Scottish Soldiers in Colonial America » (Part 2) by David Dobson (1997). Documents supplied to Harry Duckworth by Dr. W. Forbes include PRO, WO34 series (correspondence between commander of 78th Regiment and commander-in-chief in America); CU49/5 [notes from the Duke of Argyll to the Duke of Cumberland on the commissions to be granted when the Second Highland Battalion (63rd, later 78th) was formed, January 1757 – in Cumberland Papers at Windsor Castle]. Copies of other PRO documents and letters relative to James Clephane, Colonel Simon Fraser of Lovat, James Fraser of Belladrum and other Fraser officers, from private Fraser family archives in Scotland and Canada, provided to Clan Fraser Society of Canada. Army Lists relating to the 2nd Highland Battalion [63rd & 78th] for 1757-1761, 1763, 1765-6; family biographies and regimental histories from Royal Canadian Military Institute (RCMI) Library and Toronto Reference Library. Copies of Muster Rolls from David Stewart Museum, Montreal and National Archives of Canada, Ottawa.